The main purpose of the present study was to elaborate on coping behavior toward romantic break-ups, and to examine the relationship between coping and mental health. First, in order to establish the items for this study, a pilot survey of 950 undergraduates was conducted in order to collect free responses describing coping behavior toward romantic break-ups. Second, 455 undergraduate students completed scales for assessing coping behavior, the extent of romantic love toward the ex-partner, and mental health (duration of recovery period from the break-up, and the resulting distress). Factor analysis of the coping items produced six factors : Regret, Grudge, Dissolving Relationship, Positive Reappraisal, Displacement, and Distraction. Structural equation modeling was conducted, suggesting that coping behavior influenced mental health even after the effects of the recovery period were controlled. It was also found that Regret and Grudge/Dissolving Relationship influenced mental health negatively.
This study examined the inhibitive effect of punishment on activation of female stereotypes. Fifty male undergraduate and graduate students were randomly assigned to two conditions ; punishment condition and control condition. In the punishment condition, aversive sound was inflicted as punishment when negative female stereotypical associations were presented, whereas in the control condition, the sound was given when non-female stereotypical associations were presented. The activation of female stereotypes was measured with a semantic priming paradigm. The results indicated that the negative female stereotypes were activated in the control condition, but this activation was less acute in the punishment condition. These effects of punishment were not modified by participants' explicit attitude toward women. The mechanisms governing the inhibitive effect of punishment on stereotype activation, and the role of valence of stereotypes in the activation were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to refine the scale for self-image (Shimizu, Shimotomai, & Kazama, 2003) after attaining an occupation. Undergraduates (N=688) completed a questionnaire about the types of occupations they desired, their motivation level to attatin it/them, and their self-image after attaining an occupation. The major findings were as follows. (1) Nine factors were extracted from the self-image items for male students, while seven factors were extracted for female students. These factors revealed a current outlook on the self-image that students have of themselves after obtaining employment. (2) These self-images significantly influenced the motivation level toward attaining the desired occupations. (3) Reliability and validity of the scale were satisfied, except for certain subscales. These results suggest that future self-image after attaining an occupation can be very useful for understanding the vocational decision process amongst undergraduates.
Risk communication is defined as a reciprocal information process between experts and the public concerning some type of risk. Previous studies have not adequately addressed the evaluation of risk communication made by the information source and experts of risk management organizations. The present study examined the evaluations of communication dealing with the risk of nuclear power generation by of public relations officers at a power company. The results showed that messages which elaborated on not only the benefits, but also risk involved in nuclear power, were evaluated as being more fair, honest and self-assuring than those which described only the benefits. Furthermore, two-sided messages were expected to elicit sympathy and trust from the receiver of the messages. These results demonstrated empirically that information sources regard the risk communication as being necessary and useful.
The present study explored perfectionists' task-strategy and its inefficiency in the information-seeking task from the misregulation perspective. Participants were divided into two groups on the basis of Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI). Twenty-eight students, 15 high- and 13 low-perfectionism participants, were asked to prepare for the test by gathering information, which was designated as either important or unimportant. The amount of unimportant information was regarded as a tangential strategy, such that too much effort or excessive persistence would impair the efficiency in the task. The hypothesis tested was that high perfectionists' inefficient strategy would lead to a drop of their test score. The results suggested that high-perfectionists collect unimportant information more than low-perfectionists, and resulting in them attaining a lower test score. Our findings indicated that perfectionists' high motivation and adherence to problem solving, coupled with their use of careful strategy, could backfire.
The purpose of the present study was to reconsider social annoyance as a discrepancy in normative focus in line with norm-focus theory (Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990). We conducted two experiments to examine the hypothesis that a discrepancy in normative focus between the actor and the observer would make the behavior seem less annoying than when there is consistency between them. Results showed that participants who focused on the same norm as the actors evaluated the action as less annoying than those who focused on a different norm. However, the focal norms did not influence the emergence of behavior that was considered social annoyance. Therefore, the hypothesis was partially supported. A discussion on the emergence of social annoyance in terms of norm-focus theory was conducted.
Regulative functions of common sense seem to be an interesting phenomena worth investigating, but very few studies have addressed the matter. In this article, we discussed the normative influence of common sense from the perspectives of both common sense as knowledge, and common sense as a norm. A review of the literature was conducted from these perspectives, reflecting upon how they apply to real life. In particular, we discussed the latter perspective with respect to its significance, suggesting research approaches, and raising future directives for research. After reviewing the concepts involved in the study of normative influence of common sense, we discussed the potential contribution of such studies toward our social lives.