The present study had four purposes. (1)To examine whether Weiner's attribution theory is applicable to the Japanese people. (2)To examine whether sex differences of the attribution style be observed in the interpersonal situation. (3)To testify that the differences in causal attribution style be more efficiently explained by <sex-roles>___- than <sex>___- itself. (4)To justify the correlation between masculinity and masculine-typed discipline as well as femininity and feminine-typed one. Subjects were 63 male and 62 female college students and were answered a questionnaire composed of three parts-of the attribution style, of degree of sex difference, and of sex-differentiated discipline. The results were as follows : (1)The attribution style categorized as "relational" was clearly observed. (2)Sex differences in the attribution style were distinctly observed in the interpersonal situation. (3)The differences in the attribution style were more clearly explained by <sex-roles>___- differences than <sex>___- differences. (4)The significant positive correlation between masculinity and masculine-typed discipline was obtained. No "significant" correlation was obtained between femininity and feminine-typed discipline.
A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the concept of privacy in 55 Japanese undergraduates. Based upon its results, a 15-item five-point scale of orientation toward privacy was developed. These scales and Yatabe-Guilford personality inventories, originally developed by Guilford, J.P., were administered to 134 Japanese undergraduates (35 males and 99 females). Factor analysis regarding the scale of orientation toward privacy yielded three factors, i.e., orientation toward solitude, orientation toward not publicizing one's mental life and orientation toward not publicizing one's diseases and physical defects. Correlation coefficients were calculated between factor scores and personality trait scores. Orientation toward solitude was positively related to depression, cyclic tendency, lack of objectivity, and lack of agreeableness but negatively to thinking extraversion. In addition, orientation toward not publicizing one's diseases and physical defects was positively related to depression, inferiority, and lack of cooperativeness but negatively to social extraversion. However, orientation toward not publicizing one's mental life was not associated with any personality traits. Finally, those with maladjusted personality had greater privacy orientation than those with adjusted one.
This paper elucidates the findings of a case study conducted to ascertain the structural/functional characteristics of a particular social group (within a community) which had been instrumental in promoting the diffusion of a specific innovation. also, it was within the scope of the study to investigate the innate social changes, as have been caused by decentralized, horizontal diffusion processes. In the study, all 62 members of the particular group have been interviewed. Twelve variables, including the innovation itself, diffusion activities, etc., were analyzed using the method of Quantification III, and communication network analysis was performed for intragroup communications. Some of the main findings were as follows: 1) Within the social group promoting the diffusion, new interpersonal relationship (between people who were previously not connected) and three factors which were found to affect diffusion in different ways were ascertained. 2) The flow of communication within the group was that from the latent adopters; in-group communication had intensified over time, eventually leading to a positive attitude toward the innovation by all members.
The author points that some beliefs about the world are given to children for the attainment of developmental tasks. In this article preliminary studies of children's belief of immanent justice are reported, which were administered to 5-year-olds and 6-year-olds of kindergarten in a farm area of Japan. The results of first two studies showed that more of the older children knew the concept of `Bachi' (punishment by `Kami') (study 1) and used this concept to explain the cause of unhappy events which followed wrong acts than the younger children (study 2). Study 3 were conducted to examine the variables which were hypothesized to affect to children's belief of immanent justice; care-taker's tendency of giving reasons with reference to `Bachi' or outer agents of punishments to children, egocentrism of children, lack of ability to find naturalistic cause, and mode of story ("fact mode" vs. "story mode"). The multiple regression analysis revealed the significant positive effects of age and the variable of care-taker's tendency. The results suggests that the idea of immanent justice might be given by care-takers as one tool of socialization.
The three-fold purposes of the present study are to make clear the structure of normative attitude toward helping, to clarify the structural disparity between the different groups of sex, age and generation, and to confirm correspondence between those attitudes and helping behaviors. A total of 418 subjects rated 29 attitude items related to helping norms in terms of their agreement with those items. The data were analyzed by the method of principal component analysis, and four helping norms (factors) were produced. Analyses of variance, sex (2) × age (4) or generation (2) factorial design found sex, age, and generation differences. The older generation, for example, tends to agree the norm of restitution more than the younger generation, but to agree the exchange norm less than the younger generation. It was confirmed that the normative attitudes correspond to helping behaviors. For example, a man of experience in blood donation possesses a stronger positive attitude toward the norm of self-sacrifice than one who has no experience.
Tsukuba Science City is a newly constructed city situated within the old farming areas of Tsukuba, Japan. The new development, therefore, has had a great impact not only on the original inhabitants of the central district but also on the others in the nearby areas. With the progress of the construction of the new city, the consciousness, values, attitudes, and behaviors of the population have been transformed from the traditional to the modern type. Six sets of survey data on attitudes and behaviors were collected over 10 years period. Based on these data, we made first the index of diversity of attitudes and behaviors which may represent the level of urbanization of the residents' consciousness. Then, into a mathematical model integrating time and space, we formulated the process of change in this index at several regions for 10 years period. The result indicates the model to be fitted well enough to describe the urbanization process according to the distance from the center of the town and to the lapse of time since the basic year.
This study examines the relationship between employee consciousness of the job-related atmosphere and motivation at work. Expectancy theory is used here to develop a framework for the analysis of possible effects. Supportive supervision (`S') and social support of co-workers (`C') are identified as two major factors of employee consciousness of the job-related atmosphere. Employee job awareness regarding its pleasantness and acceptability (`J') is considered here as a moderating variable for the relationship of `S' and `C' with motivation. Several hypotheses are developed upon possible relationships of the above three factors (`S', `C', & `J') and employee motivation. These hypotheses suggest the existence of positive effects of supportive supervision and co-worker social support and their moderating effects due to the pleasantness and acceptability of the job on motivation. A questionnaire survey administered to Japanese manufacturing employees considerably supported the validity of hypotheses. Particularly, the result suggests that the supportiveness of supervision is highly effective in improving employee motivation when the job is perceived rather unacceptable.