After being socially excluded, people try to reconnect with others. Previous research indicated that excluded people show an enhanced ability to distinguish between-category differences relative to within-category differences of group members. It is important that excluded people distinguish in-group members from out-group members to avoid making an unnecessary effort for social reconnection or further ostracism, because in-group members afford more opportunities to reconnect compared with out-group members. We hypothesized that this perceptual change would heighten the perception of the similarity of group members. Participants were included or excluded by Cyberball (a ball-tossing computer game) and constructed imagined histograms of the perceived distribution of members of four groups across a trait dimension. As predicted, social exclusion heightened the participants’ perception of the similarity of group members.
This study examined chronological changes in attitudes towards foodstuffs from the areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, using citizens’ data (n＝1,752) from the panel surveys conducted in 4 waves between September 2011 and March 2014. Using the dual process theory of decision-making, the study attempts an empirical examination that includes the interaction of two factors: (1) anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident, which is hypothesized to lead to negative emotional decision-making following the formation of relevant attitudes, and (2) knowledge, higher-order literacy, and critical thinking, which are hypothesized to promote logical decision-making. Until three years after the nuclear accident, there was no large chronological variation in either anxiety regarding the radiation risks of the nuclear accident or attitudes toward foodstuffs from affected areas. The tendency regarding the latter was particularly strong in areas far from the location of the disaster. Negative attitudes regarding foodstuffs from affected areas were reduced through the possession of appropriate knowledge regarding the effects of radiation on the human body. However, the belief of possessing such knowledge may, conversely, hinder careful consideration with appropriate understanding.
The cognitive and behavioral effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) program involving uniquely Chinese cultural characteristics was investigated through self- and others’ assessment. Chinese undergraduates (N＝39) were divided into a control group and an SST group. The SST group participated a brief SST program that was developed by incorporating cross-cultural social skills and unique Chinese cultural characteristics. The control group participated in a program that bears no relationship to social skills. In order to examine the behavioral effectiveness of the program, a series of conversational and observational experiments was conducted. The results indicated that Chinese, cross-cultural, and Japanese social skills’ scores of the SST group increased significantly after the program compared with the control group. This suggested the effectiveness of the program on participants’ cognition. The scales for evaluating participants’ behaviors from self-observations and those of other observers also showed significant changes in the SST group. It is concluded that the program was effective for changing participants’ behaviors in addition to their cognition. Simultaneous changes in Chinese and Japanese skill factors suggested the possibility that cultural factors are connected to each other.
In desperation to learn the details of their case and to achieve the right to know, the families of crime victims in Japan have been taking action to implement the victim participant system in criminal trials. Focusing on the victim participant system, which began in 2008, the present study examined whether or not family members of victims who actually participated in criminal trials felt that their demands to know were fulfilled through the process. We administered a survey targeting 173 individuals whose family member has been the victim of a crime such as murder. The results revealed that their demands were fulfilled as they had expected only when they participated in the trial. Furthermore, we found that such sufficiency level led to their satisfaction with the justice system, while insufficient fulfillment of demands led to an increase in people’s willingness to act toward changing the system. We discussed the social consequences of judicially guaranteeing a victim’s right to know.
This study investigates whether perception of relational mobility moderates the effect of guilt on compensatory behavior in Japan. De Hooge et al. (2011) in the Netherlands found that, in multiperson relationships, guilt motivates compensatory behavior toward the victim at the expense of a third party. In contrast, Rebega et al. (2014) in Romania found that people who feel guilt compensate the victim at the expense of their own resources. In this study, we reproduced the same experimental conditions in Japan. We found that participants in the guilt condition distributed more resources to the victims at their own expense than did participants in the control condition, and the amount distributed to the third party did not differ between conditions (Studies 1 and 2). These results support the findings of Rebega et al. (2014). Furthermore, the result of Study 2 suggested that the difference in perception of relational mobility moderates the effect of guilt on resource division in multiperson relationships. Implications for theory and behavioral research on guilt are also discussed.
The aim of this study was to reveal behavior and thought constructing life skills in Japanese adults toward consideration of life skills training for adults. Descriptions of life skills were collected as text data from 400 adults. Co-occurrence network analysis found 40 instances of behavior and thought from the data. Several factors obtained were similar to those in previous studies (e.g., “positive thinking,” “planning,” “interpersonal manner,” etc.). Additionally, the original factors were also identified (e.g., “searching on social media,” “skeptical attitude toward information,” “judgment of profit and loss,” “imagining the worst situation,” “judgment of the appropriate psychological distance,” “maintaining the appropriate psychological distance,” etc.).