The concept of attitudes has been used and investigated to predict human behaviors for about a century. Review of researches on the definition of attitudes shows that attitudes have been regarded as "evaluation toward objects" at least in the empirical researches on attitudes. There are many empirical researches on formation and changing of evaluation toward objects which is assumed to be a predictor of human behaviors. In this article, they are reviewed and divided into three categories, which are researches based on the reinforcement theory, researches based on the cognitive theory, and researches with mathematical models. Finally, it is proposed that studies of human information processing are applicable to attitude studies, and many cognitive elements have to be used to clarify attitude structure and to predict human behaviors.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the attitudes toward dwelling life held by the residents in Housing and Urban Development Corporation Estate as the basic data for the rebuilding plan and to get full information about the living way of the urban residents in the future. The subjects of this study are the residents in three H.U.D.C. estates for rent in the metropolitan area. Thirty-two items of the attitude toward dwelling life and life style are analyzed by the third method of quantification. The attitudes toward dwelling life are categorized to "commute and facility", "dwelling unit size and environment" and "house rent". Life style is generally divided into 2 types which are similar to "other-directedness" and "inner-directedness".
When consumers buy certain products, they sometimes seek information about the product class and sometimes not. Many literatures have shown that consumers make less effort to acquire information when they are less involved with the product class. Then, if information seeking by word-of-mouth is easier and costs less than information seeking by mass media, those consumers who are less involved with the product class will depend upon word-of-mouth more than the more involved consumers. This study examined this hypothesis by giving questionaires to 214 female college or university students. The product class chosen here was cosmetics. The results showed that information seeking by word-of-mouth is an easier way to aquire information, and that if consumers are less involved with the product class, they depend more upon word-of-mouth for getting information about the product clans.
In this paper, EMG was used to analyze facial expressions of sadness, joy, and anger, and also to analyze facial expressions shown while watching the film of aversive stimuli. Subjects were female who had an experience of performing on stage and those who had no experience of such. The facial muscles which was analyzed are as follows; M.frontalis, M.corrugator supercilii, M.orbicularis oculi, M.zygomaticus major, M.levator labii superioris, and M.depressor angulioris. Results were followings, 1) typical muscle movements of M.orbicularis oculi, M.zygomaticus major, and M.levator labii superioris was seen when the expression of joy was shown, 2) typical muscle movement of M.corrugator supercilii was seen when at unpleasant facial expressions such as sadness and anger, 3) In the case of actors, typical muscle movement of M.corrugator supercilii was seen when at facial expression of joy, M.zygomaticus major at facial expression of anger, M.frontalis, M.zygomaticus major, M.levator labii superioris, and M.depressor angulioris at facial expression of sadness.
The students were presented with the style names of 8 kinds of Japanese music (name only) and they also listened to the 8 styles of music (music only-no name). Their emotional impressions were then rated by using the semantic differential method based on 50 adjectives. The main findings were as follows: (a) After analysis by the R-technique three factors emerged viz. pleasure, gracefulness, forcefulness. (b) Analyzed by the Q-typing, Japanese music presented fell into three kinds, i.e. folk entertainment (e.g. festival music, popular music, children's playing songs, folk songs), art music (e.g. Koto music, Noh music, Japanese lieder) and Enka (a kind of popular ballad). (c) It was confirmed that students recognize Japanese music as possessing a sympathetic function (i.e. the power to evoke and invite participation in the hearer) and aesthetic one. They distinguish one kind of music from another according as these two functions differ in degree. They used mainly two classifications, namely, easy enjoyable music and art music and occasionally other kinds. And students' cognition of the forcefulness derived from tone volume seems to follow both functions. These findings suggest that Japanese should participate much more in folk entertainment, which is important. Furthermore some plan is needed to promote a greater appreciation of art music which has been so negatively received to date.
It is generally known that littering can not be controlled by merely physical technology but by controlling the littering behavior of individuals. This would seem to be the most important factor of control. As one effective technique for controlling littering behavior, a behavior modification technique has recently been discovered. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such a behavior modification technique to induce littering behavior in a naturalistic settings: the baseball stadium. The procedures used were as follows; (1) an operant contingency in the form of positive reinforcement procedures, (2) a positive prompting strategy, (3) a negative prompting strategy, (4) a litter bag only condition. The findings revealed a highly significant effect of treatment. There were significant differential effects between the different treatment strategies.