The purpose of this study was to confirm the results on sex differences of same-sex friendship (SSF) and to examine the effects of sex-role type on SSF through emotional self-disclosure and the hope of SSF. Emotional self-disclosure consisted of 9 states of the emotion (as a result of factor analysis, 7 emotions), and the hopes of SSF consisted of 10 contents. Subjects were 246 (92 male and 154 female) undergraduates. Major findings were as follows: 1. Female self-disclosed the causes of the emotion more than male when they were in the state of fear and shame, depression and anxiety, happiness, and calmness. 2. Male hoped companionship of SSF and female hoped interdependence and self-disclosure. 3. Male in high femininity (HF) revealed more self- disclosure than male in low femininity (LF) except in the state of calmness. Male in high masuculinity (HM) hoped more companionship of SSF than male in low masuculinity (LM). 4. Female in HF revealed more self-disclosure than female in LF in the state of depression and anxiety, calmness, and anger. Female in HM revealed less self-disclosure than female in LM in the state of fear and shame, and depression and anxiety. Female in HM hoped more admiration, less cooperation, less self-disclosure, and less companionship than female in LM. Female in HF hoped more cooperation, more sensitivity, more self-disclosure, less information, and less authenticity than female in LF. These findings were discussed in terms of the sex differences of socialization (sex role expectation).
This study aimed to investigate various factors related to the changes that retired people perceived in their social network which forms the base of their lives and activities during retirement. A questionnaire of retired people between the age of 55 and 74 was conducted by mail. Responses numbering 2,981 (men: 2,680; women: 301) were received, and 44percent of the data was valid. Factor analysis indicated that the changes that retirees noticed in their social network after retirement can be divided into four categories: community activities, friendships, family relationships and general social interactions. Quantification Theory Type I clearly indicated that although the factors related to the changes perceived in the social network after retirement varied depending on the category, the changes noticed were generally strongly related to age, reemployment situation, standard of living, cohabitation with family members, and area of residence, as well as other factors such as the employment situation before retirement, including position, type of work, and size of corporation, or career-related factors, including level of education.
The present research was designed to extend Berscheid, Snyder, and Omoto's (1989b) research by comparing scores on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) in Japan and the United States. The present data indicated that students in the United States are more likely to select a romantic relationship than a friend or family relationship as their closest relationship. Students in Japan, in contrast, are more likely to select a friend relationship than a romantic or family relationship. Students in the United States also report greater frequency and diversity, but not strength, of interdependence in their closest relationship than students in Japan. These findings are consistent across raw and scale scores on the RCI. Consistent with Berscheid et al.'s research, scores on the RCI do not appear to be associated with the length of the relationships. A small positive correlation between the total RCI score and attributional confidence supports the validity of the RCI in Japan and the United States.
Many studies about high school students' choosing their career have been focused on the motives and decision making processes of their entering universities. In addition to the motives of high school students' entering universities or junior colleges, the present study examined the motives of their entering special training school and those of getting jobs. One hundred and five girl students (12th grades) were asked to rate the strength of motives for these three kinds of careers and to answer which career they had chosen. Factor analyses found both factors common to all the three kinds of careers and factors peculiar to each career. Relationships between these obtained motives and the career which they really chose were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the direction in which probabilistic forecast has failed on the reliability evaluation of an informational source. That is, when the forecast fails and it leads you to an unfavorable situation, the reliability of the informational source of the forecast would be deteriorated more than when the failure is in the other direction. As a whole, the results of this experiment supported the hypothesis. But it was also shown that this hypothesis does not always hold good on all subjects. The above hypothesis does not apply when the forecast failure is not attributed to the source of information. For the negative feelings caused by the failure would not be associated with the source of information and therefore would not mediate the path to the reliability evaluation of the informational source.
This research is aimed at clarifying the behavior of pedestrians in unfamiliar surroundings, during recreational activities, with particular emphasis on their trash disposal behavior. Primarily, in order to reach the objective, the author attempted to analyze the characteristics of trash disposal behavior at a highway service area. Based on the results, garbage cans were systematically arranged according to the characteristics of trash disposal behavior. This rearrangement resulted in a more effective disposal pattern in which pedestrians' distinguishing between flammable and non-flammable garbage increased, and correct trash can use ratios increased significantly. From the on-going research the author was able to extract the following pedestrian behavioral traits: 1) a tendency towards cleanliness, 2) a tendency to minimize energy, and finally, 3) a tendency to shorten the distance.
A new quantitative model of interpersonal attraction was proposed. This model predicts the contradictory results to Byrne's reinforcement model in the effect of topic importance of attitude on the relations between similarity and interpersonal attraction. Seventy three male and nine female undergraduate students in Exp. 1 were prenented with two strangers' attitudes simultaneously and rated the attraction of them. Ninty seven male and twenty one female undergraduates in Exp. 2 were also presented with two stranger's attitudes successively and evaluated their attraction first, then reevaluated them with the information that they were the same person. The results suggest that the attraction is more polarized for strangers of important rather than unimportant attitude when the importance of attitude is within subject factor. Implications are discussed in terms of the quantitative models of attraction, such as information integration and expectancy value models.