This study aimed to develop the Multi-Dimensional Measure of Online Disinhibition (MMOD), which has a multi-dimensional perspective on online disinhibitive psychological states and related cognitions, and to evaluate its validity and reliability. In Study 1, 73 items related to online disinhibition were generated from 20 semi-structured interviews. The wording of the items was modified repeatedly according to two preliminary surveys to construct a 25-item preliminary MMOD. In Study 2, 4- and 3-factor solutions were compared using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, a 3-factor structure (unique perspective on online environment, change of alienation cognition, and change of relationship cognition) with 12 items of the MMOD was confirmed. Correlation analysis with scales from previous studies showed that MMOD has good validity.
Although many studies on gratitude indicated positive effects of gratitude on various attitudes and behaviors, how the effects of gratitude expression and receipt differ in the work context remains unclear. The current study distinguished the expression and receipt of gratitude and examined their effects on work engagement and contextual performance. The results showed that both expression and receipt of gratitude had a positive effect on work engagement and contextual performance, and the difference between their effects was not statistically significant. In addition, the results showed the congruence effect of expression and reception of gratitude on work engagement from response surface analysis. This study contributes to the literature on workplace gratitude by identifying the congruence effects between these two aspects of gratitude.