The purpose of this study was to revise the Attitudes towards Paranormal Phenomena Scale (APPle) to capture various aspects of skeptical attitudes, so that the believing and skeptical attitudes toward paranormal phenomena could be measured in detail. A questionnaire survey was conducted with undergraduates. Using exploratory factor analysis, six factors (Total Denial of Paranormal Phenomena, Denial Based on Current Situational Awareness, Inclination Towards Fortunetelling and Magic, Believing in Spirituality, Intellectual Curiosity about Paranormal Phenomena, and Fear of Paranormal Phenomena) were extracted, and a scale with 25 items called APPle II was created. From the viewpoints of internal consistency, confirmatory factor analysis, test-retest reliability, and criterion-related validity, sufficient reliability and validity were confirmed. Among the six factors, “Inclination Towards Fortunetelling and Magic” and “Believing in Spirituality” were regarded as believing attitudes, whereas “Total Denial of Paranormal Phenomena” and “Denial Based on Current Situational Awareness” as skeptical attitudes. “Intellectual Curiosity about Paranormal Phenomena” could be both believing and skeptical, and seemed to be based on analytical and critical thinking.
The social support hypothesis posits that emotional crying has a social function in eliciting support from others and is said to occur regardless of gender, culture, location, or emotional valence. However, if the crying behavior is perceived as having the intent to manipulate others, support is predicted to be inhibited; nevertheless, this has not been verified in practice. Therefore, in this study, we used a scenario to manipulate the presence or absence of crying behavior and the intentionality of crying behavior to test this prediction (n＝44). The results demonstrated that when crying behavior was perceived as intentional, anger emotion was significantly higher, and support intention was significantly lower compared to not-crying and not-intentional crying, supporting the prediction. The results of this study indicate that not all types of crying elicit support, suggesting that there are exceptions to the social support hypothesis.