The surface structure of an artificial membrane composed of a Millipore filter and a synthetic lipid analogue, dioleylphosphate (DOPH), changes from a highly reflective hydrophilic state to a poorly reflective hydrophobic state in KCl solution with increasing calcium ion concentration in the solution. Using a microscopic digital image processing system the structural changes can be characterized quantitatively, in a histogram of the brightness level and a binary black-and-white picture. The gross area of hydrophilic domains and the mean diameter of hydrophilic particles were measured by processing the binary picture.
Ag deposits are grown epitaxially on NaCl or KCl substrates at room temperature in Ar inert gases of 0.2-2Pa. The epitaxial temperature is about 15°C and the orientations are (001)Ag//(001)NaCl and (110)Ag//(001)NaCl. Shapes of the deposits are rounder than that obtained by the usual vacuum doposition method. These results suggest that surface diffusion of Ag adatoms and surface migration of Ag clusters are activated by the collisions of Ar atoms in the atmospherical gas in this deposition process.
Core-level electronic structures have been investigated for rare-gas atoms (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) implanted in 3 d transition metals. The extra-atomic relaxation energies in the core-ionization process of the rare gas atoms were estimated by means of the Auger parameters . It was found that the extra-atomic relaxation energies of the implanted xenon and neon increase with the number of d electrons of the host metal. The magnitudes of the relaxation energies of xenon are close to those of the host metals themselves rather than those of the xenon adsorbed on metal surfaces. These facts suggest that the core holes in rare-gas atoms are screened by the d electrons in the host metals. It was also elucidated that the extra-atomic relaxation energies of rare-gas atoms in the same hostmetal (Ti) increase with the atomic mass of the rare gases. This finding is interpreted by the consideration that the screening effect by the d electron grows with the atomic radius of the implanted rare gases.
Surfaces of poly (fluoroalkyl methacrylate)s and poly (fluoroalkyl α-fluoroacrylate) s were investigated by measuring critical surface tension of wetting (γc). Thin layers of polymer films were obtained by the solvent casting method. The concentration of fluorine in the films was determind by Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). We observed a good relationship between the concentration of fluorine determined by ESCA spectra and γc of the thin polymer film.i. e., the more of the F1s ESCA signal, the less γc of the polymer film. It was concluded that the structure of either main chain and side chain fluoroalkyl group or the alkyl chain length of polymers affect the values of γc of the polymer films.
Phlogopite mica surfaces have been observed under various conditions by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Although the AFM images change with the scan directions, we suppose that the hexagonal arrays which appeared in the AFM images are oxygen atoms from the observations of phlogopite mica surfaces after an ionexchange. Similar periodic structure images were obtained in water and in silicone oil as well as in air. Particularly clear images were obtained in pure water.