This article describes a historical view of the role of surface analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These surface analysis methods have given many fruitful information for the material characterization especially for failure analysis. Now many standard procedures for the surface analysis have been achieved and published over 38 standard documents from International Standards for Organization.
It is well known that semiconductor devices are composed of a lot of surfaces and interfaces controlled at an atomic level. In a word, the semiconductor devices can't be made without the proof of the surface science. In this paper describes how the surface analysis was useful for the semiconductor industry. Especially, the outline is described about the result of evaluation for the dielectric thin film using XPS. It introduces the utility of Auger peak exited by Bremsstrahlung X-ray, the profile construction from angle-resolved measurements, the band alignments and the work function measurements as an evaluation example by XPS. It is thought that the finding clarified by the surface science becomes more important for the development of the semiconductor industry.
Based on the experience of the characterization of steel materials for more than 20 years, the author reviewed the roles and contributions of surface science in the steel industry. Surface analytical techniques have played many important role in steel industry. Surface analytical technique include not only X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) but scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and so on. Surface analysis applied fields of steel investigation are surface segregation, grain boundary segregation, corrosion, surface treatment, surface passivation, and so on. Recently, the needs of the analysis of buried interface such as the interface between matrix and nano-particle or nano-grain boundary have been increased. So the three dimensional analysis with atomic resolution attracts much attention in the area of steel industry.
Several R & D topics related to surface science in automobile industry are reviewed in chronological order from early 1970s, including topics on instrumental analysis of surfaces, sputtering and plasma processing, birefringent thin films, all optical sensors, transient analyses of surface chemical reactions in automobile catalysts, recordable CD-Rs which can be played in DVD-ROM drives, solar cells and photochemical reduction of CO2.
Since tribology is defined as a science and technology of friction and wear between two surfaces with relative motion, tribological phenomena are closely related to surface science. Tribological behaviors are strongly affected by the surface structure of moving contacts, on the other hand, the surface structure is dynamically altering by mechanical contacts, which is very complex and dynamically changing with time. Better understanding of tribological phenomena and development of tribo-systems are deeply dependent on advancement of fundamental research which is supported by a variety of modern surface analytical tools and research techniques in surface science using ultra-high vacuum and advanced surface analytical tools. In tribological phenomena, mechanical energy is supplied to contact surfaces, and so there are many phenomena which are waiting to be studied. Fundamental understanding of tribological phenomena on the bases of surface science provides the development of tribological technologies such as friction, wear and lubrication, and then contribute to develop new tribological technologies for energy saving, eco-friendly lubrication as well as improving the efficiency, safety, reliability and life of machines.
This report describes universities-industries collaborations on biomedical applications of self-organized honeycomb-patterned polymer films, which are prepared by using physical surface phenomena based on water droplet condensation during evaporation processes of polymer film casting. The film company has established engineering processes of regularly porous polymer film fabrication. The textile company has developed high-performance adhesion preventing polymer films having asymmetric nano-honeycomb structure under collaboration with the film company. Covered biliary stents are newly developed and released by the medical device company. Honeycomb-patterned polymer films are supplied to the medical device company from the film company.
18-Methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA) is an unusual branched-chain fatty acid that is covalently bounded, possibly via a thioesteroresterlinkage, to the cuticle surface of hairfiber s. It is also known that the lipid layermakes the hairsur face hydrophobic and acts as a boundary lubricant to decrease friction resistance. 18-MEA can be easily removed; however, underalkaline conditions such as in the presence of hairbleach orper manent waving, the hairsur face becomes hydrophilic and the friction increases. The absence of 18-MEA may influence the sensory perception of hair, making it feel dried or hard to finger/comb through. We also found that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation affects 18-MEA on hair surface using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). We therefore think it is important to study the damage to boundary lipids caused by the external stimuli in daily life. A technology for the deposition of a persistent hydrophobicity to bleached hair surfaces using 18-MEA is reviewed. It was found that the combination of 18-MEA with specific cationic surfactants system makes the bleached hair surface hydrophobic, and its hydrophobicity is maintained even after shampooing. Characterization of adsorbed layers on a mica surface was performed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that system formed an uniform layer with high wear resistance.
Isotactic polypropylene (PP) is one of the most useful plastics for modern human life. Saving energy and resources is the most important issue of the PP production. Nowadays, PP is mainly produced by gas phase process with sophisticated heterogeneous catalysts in industry. First, the history of development of PP manufacturing process is briefly reviewed and second, development of heterogeneous polymerization catalysts, studies of polymerization mechanism, are described. The importance of characterization of catalysts, especially TEM, SEM, and EDX is impressed. Simulation of polymerization based on an atomistic modeling of active sites is necessary for catalyst development to get rational working hypotheses. Finally, cluster model approach for clarifying roles of doner compounds in MgCl2 supported catalysts is presented.
STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) observation on structural changes of Si(111)-7×7 during K and Cs adsorption has been extended to high coverages up to the saturation coverage at room temperature. Up to the alkali-metal coverage of about 0.3 ML on Si(111)-7×7 surfaces, the ordered structures such as the 2D gas phase and the magic clusters known to turn into a disordered phase around 0.25 ML were well reproduced. For coverages beyond 0.3 ML, clusters (or islands) of identical size have been identified to appear and increase the number with coverage. K and Cs atoms are suggested to form 2D islands inside the half unit cell at coverage close to the saturation coverage.