表面科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4743
Print ISSN : 0388-5321
ISSN-L : 0388-5321
36 巻 , 11 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
巻頭言
特集: 水素の取り扱い方
  • 犬飼 潤治
    原稿種別: 企画趣旨
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 560-561
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Storage, transport, and handling of hydrogen are now actively investigated. In this special issue, articles on the present status of hydrogen cylinders, metal and organic hydrides for hydrogen storage, and ammonium as a hydrogen carrier are presented by authors of two universities and three companies.
  • 松永 久生, 山辺 純一郎, 松岡 三郎
    原稿種別: 研究紹介
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 562-567
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents a design method enabling Cr-Mo steel to be used in high-pressure hydrogen gas. On the basis of a series of experiments, it is suggested that the components can be designed by the conventional design by rule if the following criteria are satisfied under the maximum design pressure of hydrogen gas : firstly, there is no degradation in the tensile strength in slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test, and secondly, there is no degradation in the fatigue limit. It is also proposed that the components can be designed by the conventional design by analysis, if the following criteria are satisfied under the maximum design pressure of hydrogen gas : firstly, there is an upper bound on the acceleration of fatigue crack growth in hydrogen environment, and secondly, the maximum stress intensity factor of a near-through-wall crack is less than the value of the fracture toughness in air.
  • 布浦 達也
    原稿種別: 研究紹介
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 568-571
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hydrogen attracts attention as clean energy of the next generation. In order to put a hydrogen energy system to practical use, the technical development of safe and efficient storage/transportation media is on of the most important subjects. Hydrogen storage tank which is under development can be classified into following types; 1) high pressure hydrogen tank, 2) liquid hydrogen tank, 3) metal hydride storage tank and the other. In this paper, I provide the development status of recent “metal hydride storage tank”.
  • 奥田 誠
    原稿種別: 研究紹介
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 572-576
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    ‘Liquid organic hydrides’ (such as Methylcyclohexane, generally called Organic hydrides in Japan) are in liquid form under atmospheric temperature and pressure which are able to be hydrogenated and dehydrogenated by a thermochemical process, thus allowing the storage holding high hydrogen content, carriage utilizing present oil related infrastructures (container tanks, storage tanks, filling stations) with little or no modification and production of hydrogen ‘on demand’ for fuel cell vehicles or stationary fuel cells at the point of use. The uniqueness of our mobile hydrogenation equipment is to be able to store fluctuating green hydrogen derived from renewable energy in conjunction with water electrolysis, and available to scale up its size as refinery equipment. Dehydrogenation is endothermic reaction, so our dehydrogenation reactor is designed with consideration of efficient heat transfer utilizing threefold alumite cylinders heated by oxidation reaction with a drop of Toluene (residue of dehydrogenation).
  • 岡田 佳巳, 安井  誠
    原稿種別: 研究紹介
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 577-582
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chiyoda Corporation has been completed a technical development of “SPERA H2” system for the massive H2 storage and transportation technology through a pilot plant demonstration. The system employs the Organic Chemical Hydride method (OCH method). In the method, hydrogen is fixed to toluene and converted to methylcyclohexane (MCH) as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC). Toluene and MCH are gasoline components and in the liquid phase under the ambient temperature and pressure. In the method, the potential risk for the massive hydrogen storage and transportation can be reduced to the conventional one for the gasoline storage and transportation, since hydrogen is stored as MCH in the liquid phase under the ambient condition as same as gasoline. It is considered that the conventional storage tanks and the chemical tankers which are conventional infrastructure can be used to this system is also the merit.
  • 小島 由継
    原稿種別: 研究紹介
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 583-588
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hydrogen can be stored in many different forms as compressed or liquefied hydrogen in tanks, as a hydrogen-absorbing alloy, as metal hydrides with light elements, as organic hydrides or by adsorption on carbon materials. Ammonia has been expected as a hydrogen energy carrier because it has a high H2 storage capacity with 17.8 wt% and 10.7-12.1 kgH2/100 L. The volumetric hydrogen density is 1.5-2.5 times of liquid hydrogen, and it is easily liquefied under about 1 MPa at room temperature. Ammonia has advantages in cost and convenience as a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell vehicles, energy carrier for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), gas turbine of electric power plants. Current PEM fuel cells are poisoned by trace levels (> 0.1 ppm) of ammonia. After hydrogen generation by ammonia cracking, ammonia absorption materials will be useful to produce the high purity hydrogen gas.
連載企画
環境問題と表面科学
  • 浜本 光紹
    2015 年 36 巻 11 号 p. 589-591
    発行日: 2015/11/10
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    環境は今や希少資源であり,我々はその効率的な配分の仕方を解明する必要に迫られている。この課題を取り扱う学問である環境経済学の観点からいえば,環境と共生する社会・経済の実現にとって重要なのは,廃物の捨て場としての環境利用に価格付けをすることである。これは環境・エネルギー分野における技術革新の促進という点でも不可欠であるが,現実の環境政策では十分な価格付けが実現しているとはいいがたい。喫緊の課題である気候変動問題に対処するには化石燃料の大量消費を前提とした現行の技術体系の変革が必要である。環境経済学には,技術知識の創出や交換を促しうる政策措置や制度の整備につながる貢献が期待される。
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