It is well known that liquid cystals are used for the display devices in watches, calculators, and TV receivers. To improve such devices, we understand more exactly the mechanism of liquid crystal alignment, the synthesis new liquid crystals, the substrate treatment method, and the electrical driving method. We only present here phenomenologically the alignment, the treatment method, and the liquid crystals now in use.
The new transparent glass film is obtained using a silicone polymer, metal oxides, and Na2 CO3 as starting materials. The characterization of the glass and its humidity-sensing properties are studied. Cracks and pores exist on the glass surface. One of the main constituents of the glass is thought to be non-stoichiometric sodium silicate. The electrical resistance at each relative humidity is lower by about one order of magnitude compared with the taken in the absence of Na2CO3. The dominant charge carriers of the surface electrical conduction are hydrated sodium ions. The humidity-sensitive glass film, which has a good water resistance property, is found capable of sensing humidity stably for a long time.
New techniques are described for characterizing solid surfaces by means of acoustic microscopy. Acoustic microscopy can visualize subsurface layers of a solid unobservable with optical or electron beam techniques. This advantage makes possible the evaluation of ceramic fracture toughness, a property that determines wear and erosion resistance. Also possible is the study of the delamination mechanism of PVD films under repeated sliding contacts. Another advantage of acoustic microscopy is that it can measure the velocity and attenuation of surface acoustic waves on a small area of solid surfaces. These waves penetrate into the solid by about one wavelength and can probe the elastic properties of a surface layer whose thickness is determined by the acoustic frequency. Good correlation was found between the hardness of TiN PVD film and the increase in velocity of the surface acoustic waves, or between the hardness of heat-treated steel and surface wave attenuation. It is proposed that the combined application of these new techniques will serve as a comprehensive means of characterization of metals and ceramics.
This article reviews the principle, techniques, and applications of high energy ion scattering (HEIS) to surface physics. Particular emphasis is given to computer simulation of the nuclear encounter process between high energy (∼MeV) He ions and target surface atoms. This simulation is mandatory for deriving any quantitative conclusions from experimental measurements. At the same time, it is most useful to comprehend the nature of HEIS and how to use it. Also discussed are possible applications of HEIS to compound semiconductor problems, some of which are under consideration in our Optoelectronics Joint Research Laboratory.
Water-based ink has recently come into wide use for gravureand flexographic printing. Griavure printing on rough surface paper had a tendency for reduced ink transfer, especially from highlights to middle tones. On the other hand, flexographic printing is effective with paper surfaces of considerable rouuhness. Water-repelling paper or paraffin-coated paper is used for overwrapping liners. However, this kind of paper has low surface tension and the wettability of water-based ink is low. Ink transter is diminished and color strength decreases. However, ink wettability is improved by decreasing its surface tension as much as possible. On non-coated paper, water-based inks dry well by penetration into the paper. But in the case of coated paper, or multicolor printing, drying occurs mainly by evaporation and large amount of energy is required.