In the course of heating of metals, impurities in metals often segregated to surfaces or grain-boundaries, and the compositions of surfaces or interfaces are different from that of the bulk. The properties of materials are strongly affected by these segregation behaviors. Although much research on the segregation behaviors of metals have been published already, surface thermodynamics has not been established yet. This review discusses free energy diagrams of surfaces and the segregation isotherms, largely from the point of view of Gibbs' dividing surface model and indicates how the interaction between segregants will affect the segregation behaviors on metal surfaces. Throughout this review, attempts are made to understand the basic concepts of surface thermodynamics of metals.
Computer simulation in surface and interfacial phenomena is reviewed. The electrode surface phenomena are presented in relation to anodic dissolution, passive film, electrodeposition, corrosion, and electric double layer, among others. Moreover, the simulation techniques for the surface under laser irradiation and for the polymer surface are also described.
Materials which change their colors when an electric field is applied to them are known as electrochromic materials. Displays using the materials (ECD) have a relatively long history of research and development. Many materials and device structures have been proposed but they had not succeeded in finding practical applications until very recently. Among the materials, a-WO3 film has been studied most extensively and several products are available now. Organic EC materials such as viologens were thought to have insufficient reliability but these materials have also improved considerably by adopting the polymer-type viologens or new materials such as styryl-like compounds. These organic materials have the advantage of being able to displaying multi-colors. This will be very important for the future dot-matrix color ECD.
Since the fabric softener was introduced to the consumer market in the early 1960 s, its market size has been steadily growing. In 1984, production reached 200 thousand tons. The fabric softening procedure is becoming one of the important parts of the home laundry routine work now. There are three types of softener used in the home laundry to impart softness and static control to fabrics : rinse cycle use, wash cycle use and dryer cycle use. Among them, rinse cycle softeners are still the most popular and dimethyl distearyl ammoniunm chloride (DSDMAC) is generally used as a softener base. A typical domestic fabric softener consists of approximately 5% aqueous dispersion of DSDMAC. In this paper, structure of the dispersion and adsorption behavior of DSDMAC onto fabrics is described.