The iron and steel industry of Japan is a marked decline in the international competitive force on account of a direct hit in favor of the yen since 1985. In 1986, output of iron and steel in Y enterprise dropped in level of twenty-five million ton. Thus, employees the iron and steel industry decrease rapidly, particularly decrease of employees in large-scale iron works is remarkable. In the case of E iron works of Y enterprise, first purpose of all, we make clear a distinctive character of technical innovation in production process in relation to rationalization. Secondly, how do the work in the iron and steel industry which are divided into operate work and maintenance work change with the progress of microelectronics? Thirdly, how have we vocational training for the development of man-power? The results are as follows: (1) Since 1980, Character of technical innovation in production process of iron and steel industry is progress of computerization. In the E iron works, the third stage of computerization is started, iron and steel work is transferring from hardware-control to software-control. (2) In the case of line work, operation work of production facilities have a far greater importance of monitoring labour in relation to progress automation. But it is still necessary to be mediated by manual labour. As far as normal operating is concerned, it is fact that importance of experience decrease. However, experience plays an important part in the correspondence of trouble. (3) A decrease of trouble on account of improvement of operation technology and difficulty of succession in experiential skill lead to introduction of artificial intelligence. (4) On the other hand, progress of computerization too had a great in-fluence on maintenance work. On account of introduction of computer into maintenance part, we have objectively experiential skill of maintenance work and we have possibility to learn as knowledge. Namely, we substitute experiential skill of maintenance work for scientific-technical knowledge. (5) As induction training term for new employees, operator is learning for three month, maintenanceman-six month. Consequently, we consider that maintenance work is more difficult than operate work. (6) At the present time, we have a progress in job enlargement, multi-skilled worker between line part and maintenance part in iron and steel work. (7) Combination of education-training and management of promotion and upgrading intensified more than in 1970. (8) Maintenance work with scientific-intelligent work and judgement element demands "off the job training". Maintenancemen are demanded intelligence and problem solving ability, and we cannot acquire its ability only "on the job training", but are able to satisfy its ability with "off the job training". (9) Small group activity in iron and steel industry are called JK activity. JK activity play important part of man-power development with education and training within enterprise.
In evry educatin covering some industial manufactured product or other, it may be considered to carry high significance for learners in acquiring the necessary technological concept not just to know the methods of techical operatin as the means of actual labor, but to understand the structure of such means of labor and the characteristics of such technology, including the processes of its historical development. My presents study has aimed at two targets----1) Insertion of a manual type of production work between the learners' observations of a given manufactured product and their analogy (inference) as to the necessary production machinery(as originally scheduled in the classroom teaching carriculum)and letting the learners themselves analyze the production processes of such manual labor, and thereby finding out whether such insertion of manual work will effectively help the learners build the necessarytechnological concept; 2) Clarification of how effective the final evaluation of the results of such a practical production work program will be on the whole learning achievements of the learners; and also, how different such effectiveness will be among individual learners. In my field trials to back up this study, I held a production skill practice lesson involving the operation of metal-working lathes for a group of 150 students in the technology course of a Japanese secondary school ----indentified here as only as "school W" between October and November 1992, and then, again, held a similar lesson involving the operatin of weaving machines for the same group of students between May and July 1993. Then, I questioned all those students (that is, trainees) by circulating a questionnaire mailed to their respective homes on how they themselves evaluate the resulting improvements in my teachings, specifically, "increasing the understandability of the teachings I gave," and "how the flow of the teachings I gave was changed for the better." The students (trainees) answered by their free, written statements in five stages of measurements of degrees in the answer column of the queationnaire sheet they mailed back to me. I carried out the whole trails on the entire student/trainees by six rounds of regular technical arts achivement test given all of them while they were in the second and the third year grades oftheir 3-year junior high school. Then, accoding to my evaluations (ratings) of their achievements in the practical work lessons, I divided the students into three groups---"the highest-performing" "the medium-performing", and "the lowest-performing" groups. As the result of these whole processes, I have confirmed that: 1) The practical job lesson program has doubtless worked well in ensuring that the students' analogies (inferences) of the necessary production machinery from the basic classroom teachings will progress smoothly without difficulty; 2) The lower the students' basic clessroom learning achievements, the poorer were their analogies(inferences), as referred to above, and such manual labor type practical lessons were unmistakably effective in providing such students with some good clues to building their analogies (inferences), and 3) The practical lesson program certainly makes it possible for the students to secure an outlook on their potential capacities for planning, designing, and building any given industrial production machine. Based on such confirmations, I have arrived at a conclusion that such a practical lesson program clearly plays an effective role inhelping build a technological concept in the mind of any learner.
With the world economy and market assaulted by a rapid succession of changes, there is a crucial need for Japanese industries to review their approach to management and their managerial systems. Through trial and error, industrial managers are struggling with the dual challenge of meeting the increasing demands of today's world, such as acknowledging and respecting diverse values and helping employees to achieve self-fulfillment, and reducing the number of employees in order to survive. In this paper, we propose a new merit rating system which addresses both of these goals: the survival of the industry amidst the many changes taking place, and the self-fulfillment of individual employees, and which aims at developing employee capabilities. This system is based on cognitive science. Conventionally, the ability of the individual to accomplish his or her job has been evaluated in terms of abstract concepts. Our system, however, approaches the question using a mental model inherent in an individual. According to this approach, the essential ability of an individual to carry out his or her job is based on a network of various capabilities such as the knowledge, skills, and behavior of that person, which are particular to that person alone. This group of linked capabilities is what we call a "job accomplishment schema", and is defined as follows: "A job accomplishment schema is a group of linked (networked) knowledge, skills, and behavior relating to job accomplishment. As new knowledge, skills, and behaviors are acquired, they are combined with the existing job accomplishment schema to form a configuration in which learning facilitates further learning." Thus, the job accomplishment schema is configured and reinforced by putting it to use. The elements that go into configuring a job accomplishment schema are known as job accomplishment constituent schemata, and the standard package of job accomplishment constituent schemata that form a group is referred to as a job accomplishment constituent schema model. The job accomplishment constituent schema model is a linguistic model used to describe an individual's job accomplishment. If there are 100 employees doing the same job, there will be 100 job accomplishment schemata. When a large volume of job accomplishment schemata data has been compiled concerning a particular job, profiles of the job accomplishment schema which help the employee to achieve good performance in the job can be discerned. This is called a prototype of that job accomplishment schema. By selecting a prototype which closely matches the job accomplishment schema for his or her own job, the employee can narrow the focus of ability development to a more manageable range. At the same time, the employee can improve his or her own job performance through job accomplishment which is most suited to that particular employee. This motivates workers to do their best work and leads to self-fulfillment. It can be anticipated that there will be several job accomplishment constituent schemata which fit the prototype of any one job. This forms what we call an essential constituent schema. The essential constituent schema consists of basic abilities which are indispensable to the accomplishment of that job. As the essential constituent schema for the various jobs in an industry become clear, jobs can be assigned to employees who possess the appropriate essential constituent schema and whose job accomplishment schema profile resembles the prototype for that job. This will lead to more effective results in the work and to self-fulfillment on the part of the employee.
The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications puts more emphasis on On the Job Training. Taking this into consideration, in order to determine a more effective training method to use in the Postal College, the Ministry of Posts of and Telecommunications Off the Job Training Institute, the research detailed in this report was carried out. Generally speaking, On the Job Training is the better method for helping trainees develop their application skills (e.g., thinking, planning), while Off the Job Training is the better method for helping trainees master basic skills (e.g., literacy, basic knowledge). It is worth noting that there is no fixed relationship between On the Job Training and Off the Job Training. The skills which trainees expected to develop through an Off the Job Training program were determined. In addition, their present situation in the On the Job Training program before they began training at the Postal College was researched. The results are as follows; 1. With regard to basic skills, trainees expected to develop language skills (especially English) and acquire basic knowledge. With regard to application skills, trainees expected to develop skills in the areas of thinking, analysis, and planning. 2. In On the Job Training, there were more opportunities to acquire basic skills than there were opportunities to develop application skills. With respect to the above, the lecture was grouped into three parts. 1. Basic skills 2. Logical thinking skills 3. Application skills Basic skills is divided into basic knowledge which is obtained through lectures, and recognizing the present circumstances which is accomplished through reading text in detail. As for the Logical thinking part, case studies based on newsepaper articles were used to develop trainees' abilities to obtain and analyze useful information. As for acquiring Application skills, acquiring Basic skills and Logical thinking skills were combined. The trainees wrote reports on themes concerning adoministration to develop their thinking and planning skills. As a result of using this training process, reports written by seminar trainees were entered in a contest held by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in which one of the reports won an award. The results of this research indicate that this training method is both efficient and effective.