The symposium at the 36th. annual conference took place under the title of "Prospects of Secondary Vocational Education" last year. The aim of the symposium was to discuss the fact from different angles that the comprehensive courses influence seriously upon the vocational courses in high school. Because of limited time, however, we could not discuss enough. This paper attempts to complement the symposium above. (1) History on the reform of Secondary Vocational Education during the past 30 years is looked back in this section. Namely, diversification of vocational education in 1960's, course correction of vocational education in 1970's, change of direction suited to the industrial reorganization in 1980's, and the reduction of vocational education in 1990's. (2) Problems and counterplans at the entrance to vocational high school are described in this section. First, it goes without saying that vocational guidance has to be improved in junior high school level. The followings are by all means desirable: to advertise for students without dividing courses at the time of entrance examination, to adopt special admission system for the students who desire to go to vocational high school, and to set up synthetic course (e.g. industrial course): (3) It is described that educational goal of Secondary Vocational Education has to be revised in this section. There were a large number of employees fresh from junior high school 30 years ago. Therefore, fostering "middle class specialist" was the goal of Secondary Vocational Education. However, the employees fresh from junior high school have suddenly decreased nowadays, so the educational goal has to be changed from the present condition. (4) The future pass after finishing vocational high school will be described in this section. It is hoped that required conditions have to lessen (c.g. to organize special admission system), and it is desirable that job placement through proper advice will be functioned well for the students who want to get a job. (5) It is assumed that vocational courses will be decreasing because of promotion of comprehensive course, so its counterplans wil be described in this section. First, vocational courses in high school should be 4 years if necessary. Second, 2 years extension courses have to be set up much more in order to enrich vocational education of postsecondary level. It is hoped that this extension course is reorganized in the future just like Community College in the U.S.A. And, these educational institution will be utilized as "lifelong learning center" for adult workers.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of career development in enterprises historically and theoretically from a viewpoint of individual development. "Career development in organizations" has been an important concept of education and training in enterprises sinse the 1960s in Japan. It is closely related to the human resources management, specifically in the systems of job rotation and appraisal/counseling. The original purpose of it was to integrate the issues of individual growth & development with the issues of organizational expansion & progress. The essence of career development is to focus on the interaction beween an individual and an organization. An organization is dependent on the performance of its workers, while the workers depend on an organization to provide jobs and career opportunites. Needs of an organization are to recruit, manage, and develop human resources in order to maintain their effectiveness as well as to survive and grow. At the same time, needs of an individual are to acquire the work environment which can provide security, challenge, and opportunities of self-development thoroughout the life cycle. The problem shared by an individual and an organization is to seek a way to match their respective needs throughout the entire career or the entire life instead of stopping the effort after a short period of training when a new employee joins an organization. If the matching process functions optimally, both the organization and the individual can benefit from it: the organization will acquire increased productivity levels creativity, and long-range effectiveness; the individual will enjoy job satisfaction, security, optimal personal development, and as a result of integration of work and leisure, one's activities will not be limited to all job-related, but extend to include personal involvement both at home and in the community. Such emphasis on individual growth and development indicates that we must consider how activities related to self-development interact with one another through the copmprehensive time and space which one person occupies. However, in the past, too much focus of career development in an organization has been given to help organizational extension and development, and not enough attention has been given to individual growth and development. Career development in organizations has been developed independently of education and training in enterprises. Career dvelopment has been considered as a part of the human resources management system. The traditional career development, in which only organizaitional side was stressed, has never been discussed as an issue which is related to education and training in a company. When considering educational activities carried out in an organizational such as an enterprise, we can clarify the educational siginificance by focusing on individual growth and development existing in career development process. It should be possible to consider career development as a part of educational function in a enterprise.
Increasing trainee from foreign country to Japan reached 43,000 people until 1995. Especially during 1990 to 1993 (called babble prosperity), many minor enterprise received many trainee to provide to lacking labor at product line which young men hate. Although many minor enterprise were receiving many trainees, many of receiving enterprise didn't provide good job and living condition which people feels ordinary. Furthermore because receiving enterprise didn't make sure a training plan to trainee, trainee didn't get a technology enough. The other side, most of trainee, their purpose of training was to get money as possible as they can. Because of there are many these above mentioned problems, present training system is not enough to transfer technique to trainee. This paper makes clear present and subject of foreigner training system in order to questionnaire and interview of minor enterprise, trainee and instructor of public training center. Resorts of research (questionnaire and interview) are following these points. (1) Purpose of training Both of receiving enterprise and trainee hope to be get or to get useful technique to development of industries of trainee's country after trainee buck to own country. Also about satisfaction level of training, both of them feel almost satisfy. (2) Pre-training in sending country Pre-training didn't do enough, because Japanese receiving enterprise doesn't control sending country and doesn't know well what they learn in sending country. But 50% of trainee want to learn Japanese at pre-training and also most of receiving enterprise hope same thing. (3) Aftercare of training 50% of trainee feel anxiety about job in own country after training in Japan. Although some receiving enterprise want to recalling same trainee after return to their country, no receiving enterprise is taking care of trainee after training. (4) Demand for training system About 30% receiving enterprise feel that it is too long to apply to application of training. One of reason is complicated application form and procedure. And also 30% feel that a term of training is too short to teach technique. 20% want to monetary support and 11% want to support of making curriculum by public organization. Subjects of training system are these following four big point. (1) Public organization is needed to support monetary and system that minor enterprise could manage training smoothly. (2) Sending country should think why training need and making clear purpose of training once more before sending trainee. And it needs more pre-training about Japanese and aftercare of job for trainee when they return. (3) Receiving enterprise is needed to consider more about pre-training, training curriculum what trainee can understand easy and aftercare about technique and job life. And to smoothly to receiving trainee, it needs manual of receiving what individual way. (4) Trainee Trainee should makes sure training purpose once more why I need training and what will do after training. To be good system of foreigner training that receiving enterprise, sending country and trainee fell enough, it needs corporation of each position as receiving county, public organization, sending country, receiving enterprise. Furthermore,important point is making sure of purpose of training each and all.
Tokyo Gakugei University, which is one of the oldest institutes for teacher education in Japan, founded on May, 31, 1949, unifying four normal schools in Tokyo, and being raised to the status of university. From 1949 to 1960, the division of technology and education at this university was of the industry major, represented a part of the vocational education department. It started three four-year major courses in agriculture, commerce, and industry leading to a Bachelor's degree in 1952, with twenty five faculty members. In 1958, the vocation and homemaking, which was a required subject for junior high school students, was legally transformed to the industrial arts and homemaking. .The vocational education department had to be reorganized to educate the new industrial arts teachers for junior high schools. But the process of this reorganization should be based on the politics between agriculture, commerce, and industry divisions, and be very complex. While the name of this department was changed from the vocational education to the industrial arts in 1960, the organizasion was splited into the industrial ars education department and the vocational education department in 1968. The industrial arts education department started the first four-year degree course in industrial arts in 1968, and had two professors, as well as two associate professors, two lectures and two assistants, in 1970, who were the first professors of the division of technology and education, Tokyo Gakugei University. One of the most serious defects of the department's qualities in this stage, respecting the university-based teacher education, was that no faculty member took charge of and devorted himself to the research and teaching activities in the pedagogy of industrial arts, and as a result, the courses in the pedagogy of industrial arts were limited to the minimum requirements for the industrial arts teacher license. It was difficult that the students, who wanted to study the pedagogy of industrial arts as their major, took some advernced courses in it and found a faculty member guiding them about their studies professionally, with his academic background of the industrial arts education. The starting the Master's degree course in technology and education changed these conditions. In the year 1975, the division of technology and education, as the last one, was established more at the Master's Course, Graduate School of Education, although Tokyo Gakugei University got the Master's degree giving power in 1966. In that decade, the industrial arts department's members had to become conscious of their defects and endeavered to strengthen their research activities in the pedagogy of industrial arts, especially. Since 1975, the Bachelor's and the Master's courses at the division of technology and education were consisted of three majors, which were of the technology education, the electric and electronic technology, and the machinery technology. Each major was directed by own professors. Both of the faculty members who were in charge of the technology education major, were the graduates from the doctoral courses at the graduate schools of education. But it seems to have been one of the most important problems for the development of the university-based technology teacher education that we regard the practices of technology education as the objects of pedagogy and make reseaches in them by its own scientific methodology. In this respect, it should be a progress worthy attention that the Doctoral Course at the United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University started in 1996.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of social skills training (SST) in vocational training in Japan. In particular, in this essay deals with social skills training in polytechnic seminar courses (Nohryoku-Kaihatsu Seminar,1994) as public vocational training. In maniy fields knowledge over a broad range of disciplines is sought with more emphasis being placed on diagnostic competence. For example, technologists increasingly find themselves fulfilling part-managerial functions and work in multi-disciplinary environments. A broader range of competence and systems awareness in also demanded of technicians and the demand for multi-skilled craft workers is sustained. The existing classifications of occupations as craftsman, technicians, technologists and engineers already seem in appropriate in the light of the changes wrought by new technology. The enlargement of some jobs in clerical and administrative occupations to include other skills, such as social skills needed for selling and counselling, means that existing classifications fail to categorise new jobs properly. Polytechnic seminar courses in Vocational training include three areas, those are A) management and service, B) mechanics, electricity, electronics and information, and C) living, design, chemistry. SST is part of A) management and service, on the whole, occupies 5.6% at a raito of number of courses. Still more, SSTs are separated into three branches from viewpoint of the characteristic, those are (1) individual competenses, (2) social strata and (3) working fields. Each branch is includes some elements, that are; (1) individual competenses: leadership, communication, counseling, presentation, education & training, management (2) social strata: freshman, middle of worker, foreman, manager, administrator, (3) working fields: products, education & personnel affairs, business & selling, secretary & reception, management. As a result, it is examined that social skills training in Japan make much of /leadership, communication (73.5%), /foreman, manager (54.8%)/products (20.3%). SST were performed also in TWI (Training Within Industry), especially JR (Job Relations). In the future, it will be important theme that are, "What's the skills in the future? /the general skills? /the necessary skills?".