The industrial structure of developed countries tends to shift its importance from manufacture to service industry, accordingly to transfer work force from the second industries to the third industries. Especially in Japan, the transference is expected to be rapid in near future, and it is estimated that work force will be reduced in almost all industries except service industries by 2010. Under such circumstances, one of the most important issues in industrial education is to develop the abilities to adapt actively to the changing work world. Many programs as the following have been suggested, several plans in these have been implemented already; shifting educational emphasis from groupism to individualism, developing research and development personnel, educating media literacy from early stage of school, fostering the abilities of cross-cultural communication, implementing life redesign program more widely than now, promoting non-fulltime worker training programs more, consolidating life long integrated education system all over the country, and so forth. Though these kinds of programs are deserved to be considered respectively, they are not human being oriented but vocation oriented at all. Of course, industrial education is concerned about both aspects of vocation and human being, but the educational activities are to related directly human affairs. Now, we have to make efforts more to develop ego identities of working people and coming people, as the fulcrum to move themselves towards the new work world. The central issue of industrial education in changing world is to develop ego identitiy of every person.
After 1980, iron and steel technical college (ISTC) was reorganized to college of industrial technology (CIT) in development of restructuring in iron and steel industry. This paper aims to describe character of present stage in CIT. By this reorganization, student to enter CIT are increasing in number. For this, there are decreasing at the rate of dispatched students in all of students. But a number of dispatched students are increasing, and many of dispatched students particularly studies mechanical engineering, material engineering, electrical engineering. The other hand, the change of quantity naturally influences change of quality. Comparatively speaking, point of dispatched students in entrance examination are lower than point of common students, but later, their school records run to high level. Because it seems to depend on external incentive. According to analysis of curriculum in CIT, the results are as follows: (1) Subject and contents of general education are not straightly reflected in intention of enterprises, but become conscious of dispatched students in process of lecture, method of teaching, way of instruction. (2) In the same way, subject and contents of professional education are not equivalent to micro-electronics-based technologies (progress of artificial intelligence, computerization), but among them are included fundamental and theoretical knowledge of higher education level in production of iron and steel. (3) Small group activity in iron and steel industry are called JK activity. Ability to improve production process in JK activity become increasingly more important and necessary for progress of iron and steel work with advanced maintenance technology. Therefore, it is necessary not only process and method of problem solving, but also theory and principle in higher education level of mechanical engineering, material engineering, electrical engineering. So far as purpose of dispatch and promotion system in enterprises is concerned, the role and function of CIT shift from training school for the elite that type of occupation is changed from "blue-color" to "white-color", to upgrading training school for step to supervisor.
Three years have passed since the introduction of the integrated course of upper secondary schools in fiscal 1994, as a third course, alongside the general and specialized (vocational) course. This paper aims to analyze the present state of the integrated course from next three points of view. (1) Choises of career paths of students (2) Curricula of each integrated course (3) Registers of elective subjects We categorized 45 integrated courses into next three types by their parent body. (1) General course origin type (newly established schools included) (2) Combination of general and vocational courses origin type (3) Vocational course origin type 1. Features of choises of career paths of students On the whole, the rate of students who wish to advance to post-secondary school, including university, increased, and the rate of students who wish to enter the work force upon graduation decreased than before. We could categorize the integrated courses into three types, a) university-oriented type, b) post-secondary-school-oriented type, c) diverse-career-paths-oriented type. 2. Features of curricula of 45 integrated courses We could categorize the curriculum composition into five types, a) multi-subject-areas type, b) all-round type, c) single-vocational-subject-area plus a type, d) particular subject-area type, e) few-subject-areas type. We could find next six types of distinctive curriculum, a) university-oriented type, b) sports and/or music and/or art and/or calligraphy attached importance type, c) foreign languages attached importance type, d) college type, e) vocational education type, f) qualifying examination oriented type. 3. Features of registers of elective subjects One of the feature of the integrated course is the provision of a wide range of elective subjects. In order to ensure that studies are made systematically, categorized elective subjects areas established in the integrated course. But the investigation of registers of elective subjects shows that the principle of free choice of subjects is not necessary compatible with the systematical study.
In England and Wales, the Education Reform Act had enacted in July, 1988. The Act had introduced technology as a foundation subject, and then, Technology in the National Curriculum was established in March, 1990. This meant that, in the states, a nationwide framework of the technology curriculum during primary and secondary educational periods, from first to eleventh year, i.e., from the first to the fourth key stage (KS1-4), was set up, and that technology education would be taken for all pupils at each maintained school legally, in accordance with its framework. The Curriculum had consisted of the attainment targets based upon four design processes (identifying needs and opportunities, generating a design, planning and making, evaluating) and the programmes of study, in same format up to KS4, provided knowledge and skills which should be instructed and learned conforming to the processes. Both had required activity-based instruction and learning assuming to the processes. The other, when the Curriculum had established, GCSE The National Criteria, Craft, Design and Technology had already been established. The Criteria had provided three specialised courses and had a framework consisted of knowledge and skills, and had emphasized the learning of each of knowledge and skills rather than that of activity-based learning assuming to the processes. Technology textbooks published after the establishment of the Curriculum had the centres of the contents of textbooks in compiling, which could describe as the design processes and the design areas. In textbooks, the former meant a chain of the procedures for pupils' design activities such as generating ideas, designing, planning, making, evaluating, etc., and the latter meant the groups of knowledge and skills which should be learned by pupils through the processes, such as materials, energy, structures, electronics, mechanisms, etc. At KS1-3, they were realised in activity-based contents assuming to the processes. At KS4, textbooks were specialised in three courses and each of them emphasized the learning of each of knowledge and skills rather than that of activity-based learning assuming to the processes. Therefore, it seems that the contents of technology textbooks at primary and early secondary educational stages were influenced by the Curriculum and that, at mid-secondary stage, they were directly influenced by the Criteria. And further, it may be inferred from their analysis that the real contents of education at each school had also been reflecting such conditions. In these circumstances, as a certain and reliable methodology in the historical study of the contents of technology education in England and Wales, the following two methods are induced; one is the method, by analysis of the provisions of the Curriculum, to try to perform and establish such studies, and the another is, by analysis of the provisions of the Criteria related to technology education in the Certificates of Education (GCSE, GCE, CSE, etc.), to try to do that. Above all, it seems that the latter method has not a little validity of analysis, because we can assume that the contents of technology textbooks at mid-secondary stage had further been under the influence of the Criteria since the establishment of the Curriculum. From a different point of view, a certain validity was not found until the Curriculum was established, and in this respect the establishment of the Curriculum was such a landmark.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the making process of the course of study revised in 1958 through the materials ("Suzuki Hisao documents") which have been opened to the public in recent years. And I present a problem to preceding studies concerning the paticularity of this course of study. Researchers related to homemaking course have negatively evaluated that this course of study had reinforced the discriminations between boys and girls in the point that the content of homemaking course would target only girls. On the other hand, researchers related to technological education have positively evaluated the course of study in the point that the content was set as "Education of production technology". The main findings of this research are as follows; 1. In the making process of the original draft inside of Ministry of Education, whether the new subject's name should be called "Life technology" or "Technology" was not dicided to the final step. 2. In the discussion of Curriculum Council, a content of the "Technology" was discussed in initiative of the Ministry of Education. And the discussion was concentrated on ploblem of the subject's name. 3. In the discussion of the committee of teaching materials in which a concrete content of the subject was supposed to be discussed, the discussion for the expansion of each area was tried. 4. In preceding studies, the character of education of "Production technology" was evaluated to have been weakened from foundation. It is one-sided view point. For the meaning of "Technology", the relation with the vocational subjects (Agriculture, Commerce etc. were included), arts and crafts subject and homemaking subject was considered, though teaching of production technology and modern age's technology was assumed to have a new content. It was a historical fact in the process of the establishment of "Industrial Arts and Homemaking" as a technological education.