This study provides an overview of the effects of federal vocational legislation upon the development of postsecondary vocational education programs in the United States. The Smith-Hughes Act (enacted in 1917), was the first law for federal aid to vocational education, and limited the scope of the "vocational education" to that of "less than college grade" or "secondary grade". That meant that the federal aid was not intended for the postsecondary vocational education programs. In spite of that, the vocational education programs at the junior colleges emerged in some states, e. g. California in around 1930. This trend was also sup-ported by the report of the Advisory Committee on Education (1938), and Education for All American Youth, a report issued by the Educational Policies Commission in 1944. But it was not until after World War II that federal vocational education legislation authorized the federal aid for postsecondary vocational education. Since the 1950s, it was found that the old philosophy of vocational education, based on the Smith-Hughes Act and subsequent federal legislation, was not adequate to prepare youngsters and adults for the technical changes, such as the development of computer technology. One of the most important develoment in the 1950s was the passage of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, which was enacted as a result of "sputnik" shock. Title VIII of this act, which was known as the Area Vocational Programs, aimed to subsidize the states to train persons for highly skilled technical occupations. The funds provided by this program were available to postsecondary as well as secondary programs. But the scope of this program was confined to only areas that were recognized as vital to the national defense, e. g. electronics and computer technology. In 1962, The Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education urged the federal government to increase its support of post-high-school vocational and technical education programs including a variety of areas, such as trade and industry, bussiness and agriculture. The Vocational Education Act of 1963, the passage of which was based upon the recommendations of that Panel, authorized the states to spend their allocations for vocational education of postsecodanry grade. It was the first time in the history of federal vocational education legislation that the provision for federal aid to postsecondary vocational education programs appeared. The recent development of postsecondary vocational education programs, i. e. those at community colleges, technical institutes, and area vocational centers, owes much to federal aid of such programs since the passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963.
Nursing educational curricula are decreasing total class works when ever change. On purpose it is total class works of nursing. In the total class works of nursing, practical times is decreasing conspicuously. The purpose of this research is to do clear the problem of educational curricula from investigation of occupational abilities. The research methods is investigations of questionnaires and interview to total 75 nurse's (general nurse, head nurse, chief nurse) in five hospitals. The results are shown bellow. As the results of analysis, occupational abilities needing to nurses are classified into the following six groups; "nursing business ability" "leading business ability" "business control ability" "self control ability" "development ability of system" "corresponding ability in an emergency". And "business control ability" is the most in six groups. As compared with general nurses, head nurses chief nurses, general nurses are required "nursing business ability" "corresponding ability in an emergency". Head nurses and chief nurses are required "business control ability" "leading business ability". Occupational abilities of head nurses and chief nurses are very like. Nurses are required abilities of nursing practice with abilities of personal relations. In to educate at the same time practice and thinking, occupational ability is formed. The nursing practice times are decreased in the present curricula. So it is difficult to educate necessary occupational ability for work.
The theme of this paper is to clarify the "shifting to school" process in training for a hairdresser before the war, from apprenticeship to school education. The school defined here is Kakusyu Gakko (a school in the miscellaneous category) established under Shiritu Gakko Rei (Private school law) enacted in 1899. Consequently, "shifting to school" means transforming from apprenticeship to Kakusyu Gakko. How did the skill and knowledge required to a hairdresser change as a result of the transformation of training style? I discuss the internal aspects of this change from the following two points. First, western hairdressing technique such as marcel wave and permanent wave were introduced into Japan from abroad and both waves became popular in about ten years. Since western technique was not found in Japanese hairdressing skill, hair dressers such as Chieko Yamano who returned from abroad with this western technique attracted public attention, Kamiyui became a profession called a hairdresser. The professional faculty as a hairdresser could be acquired either by becoming an apprentice to such a hairdresser returned from abroad or by taking school education. As it was possible both to master a general cosmetology in a short period and to learn only western hairdressing at school, with the popularization of western hairstyle, Kamiyui who had a training under a Japanese hairdressing apprenticeship started to go to school to acquire western hairdressing technique. One of the factors in "shifting to school" was caused by the fact that western hairdressing technique was brought to the Japanese hairdressing apprenticeship, in other words, to the Japanese hairdressing skill. Secondly, the introduction of cosmetology technique examination system is thought to be a determinant factor in "shifting to school". It was 1930 that the first examination was executed in Tokyo under the control of the Metropolitan Police Department. Business activities were not permitted without passing the examination. It was a written examination testing the knowledge of hygiene, rules and regulations required for business activities. A practical examination was not enforced until 1947. The Metropolitan Police Department considered testing the knowledge of such fields to be the main point of this examination. The schools increased the number of lectures given by professors studying subjects related to the examination or established new schools in order to prepare for the examination. The number of schools built between 1929 and 1931 amounted to seven. Since fifteen schools were founded between 1913 and 1935, approximately half of the total schools were established in this period. The other factor in "shifting to school" was caused by the fact that the knowledge for written examination was attached great importance as a requirement for a hairdresser's qualification.
Craft educational contents of vocation & homemaking and of arts & crafts at that time in lower secondary school were examined how to be introduced to industrial arts & homemaking, using the contents in a course of study and the materials (Suzuki Hisao/industrial arts & homemaking library owned by KAIRYUDO) investigated in the Ministry of Education. These results were obtained as follows. (1) Craft educational contents in the 1951's courses of study of vocation & homemaking and of arts & crafts overlapped in details. (2) The craft educational contents in art & practical arts of National School during the world war II had been succeeded to the contents of vocation & homemaking and of arts & crafts after the war. (3) When the industrial arts & homemaking was organized at the revision of a course of study in 1958, the organization had the background that the people concerned with art education at that time expected to full the contents of craft education, and that the people actively went into the organization of the new subject. (4) The craft educational contents expected for the people concerned with art education were not introduced at the revision of a course of study in 1958, so the craft education came back into arts as the "handicraft". From these results, the organization of industrial arts & homemaking in 1958 had a character that the people concerned with art education tried to revive the craft education, and that the trial finished to fail.
The Shoho no Radio (once subtitled the 'Beginner's Radio') which was the Japanese earliest monthly radio magazine mainly for boys and girls (referred to here simply as 'youngsters') in Japan had first published in 1948 by Seibundo Shinkosha Publishing Co., Ltd., and had continued until 1992. This magazine originally had a brotherly relationship between the Musen to Jikken (subtitled 'The Radio Experimenter's Magazine' at that time) which was the traditional senior radio monthly already published. This study clarified a philosophy of the first issue of the Shoho no Radio through the analyses of the contents of some articles included in both brotherly radio monthlies in the same period, and argued about the educational meanings of a philosophy of the first issue of the Shoho no Radio. The Shoho no Radio had come out of the conceptual background of science and technology publishing tradition involved a viewpoint for youngsters, as the Japanese earliest monthly radio magazine for youngsters, also thinking ahead to promote the brotherly monthly Musen to Jikken. Substantial analyses showed that the Shoho no Radio had provided manufacturing articles encouraging practically to complete electro-technically inexperienced work of youngsters and explanatory ones encouraging directly to acquire electro-technological knowledge from the beginning of youngsters, whichever using plainer illustrations and sentences, and then, that the said monthly would had sincerely wanted to popularize electronics technology spreading over the youngster's generation. And we can consider that it reflects a certain philosophy of the first issue of the Shoho no Radio. In 1947, the year before the first issue of the Shoho no Radio, the Kyoiku Kihon Ho (the Fundamental Law of Education), the Gakko Kyoiku Ho (the School Education Law) and others had established in Japan, namely, the postwar-Japanese new school-educational systems and practices had already launched out. However, from a viewpoint of electronics technology education as universal education, the contemporary curricula of primary and secondary schools had been less adequate than the present ones in point of the system, and we should hesitate to say that the opportunities for study of electronics technology for youngsters had secured satisfactorily. In these circumstances, the Shoho no Radio which would have enlarged the opportunities for study of electronics technology for youngsters periodically from the outside of school education had involved a definite important meanings in a point of creating and enlarging the opportunities for study. And as stated above, the Shoho no Radio had involved a fundamentally sincerely and gently attitude toward electro-technically inexperienced youngsters as readers in the contents of its articles. This will reinforce the formal meanings of creating and enlarging the opportunities for study in point of the contents. Therefore, it seems that the historical and painstaking study of the contents of a series of the Shoho no Radio are significant not only in a context of the historical study of enlightenment and popularization of technology but also in a viewpoint of the basic study of technology education.
Today, there are many changes seen in an environment for enterprises, especially in the field of service industry, which have been caused by rapid expansion of multimedia. Generally speaking, the marketing in the field of service industry is poorer than the marketing in other industries. But, we see some new marketing practices appear in the field of service industry. Among them, database-marketing (one-to-one-marketing) makes an advantage of multimedia technology. The change of the marketing practices in service industry makes a revolution that the sales-staffs acting with the mobile-telephone (multi-function) substitute the office. Managers must have their subordinates enable to use computer. In addition, their most important role is to develop the talent for managing of their staffs. In this sense, their subordinates (the sales-staffs) have the mobile-telephone (multi-function) linking with the host computer in headquarters. So they have a same quantity of data as those available when they work in the office. Thus, they can reply to customer's questions about the products or service and give a presentation of the products and service, using their mobile-telephones (multi-function). In this circumstances, I think good judgment is most important. Customers' preference has been various. For the moment, to satisfy customers' needs the sales-staffs must communicate with properly visit customers. The sales-staffs must understand individual customers' needs, and answer their needs. The sales-staffs get customers' confidence in this process. As a result of the rapid expansion of multimedia, the way of communication between the sales-staffs and customers, has been diversifying. This diversification brings: 1 Human communication is giving way to multimedia. 2 Addition to human communication, multimedia plays an important part, in terms of exchanging the information about the customer between the headquarters and the sales-staffs. In this point, it seems to me that, as long as human communication exists, it's most important that the sales-staffs make better relationship with customers utilizing multimedia. To this effect, it is important for managers to have their subordinates make and keep good relationship with customers.