Most route choice models describe route choice behavior in habitual networks, where drivers have spatial knowledge of networks based on environmental experiences. However in disaster networks, drivers do not have any experiences or appropriate information. As a result, drivers choose routes based on dynamic decision-making, which is myopic and somewhat forwardlooking. In order to describe this decision-making dynamics, we proposed a sequential route choice model with a sequential discount rate, which is a discount factor of expected future utility. Through illustrative examples, we showed that the sequential discount rate re?ected drivers decision-making dynamics and had a large effect on evaluation of route choice behavior. We also estimated the parameter of the proposed model using the data collected in the Tokyo Metropolitan area on March 4 and 11, when the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred. The results showed that the sequential discount rate had a lower value in gridlock networks than ordinary networks and route choice mechanisms could change dynamically.
One of the measures to inhibit conflicts between pedestrian and left-turning vehicle at crosswalk of signalized intersections is, to provide separate phases for pedestrian and turning vehicle, such as exclusive pedestrian phase or Leading Pedestrian Interval (LPI). LPI is the phase which pedestrian green is displayed a few seconds ahead of vehicle green phase, and in this preceding time interval, a part of pedestrians can be protected from the conflicting left-turning vehicles. From the viewpoint of safety and mobility performance, LPI can be positioned between the conventional four-phase type in which the concurrent pedestrians and vehicles share the same signal phase and the exclusive pedestrian phase type. However, the safety and mobility performance of these three types of signal phasing is unclear. Thus, this study investigates and compares delays of pedestrian and vehicle, degree of saturation, capacity and pedestrian exposure time under those three types of signal phase types. Then an application range of LPI and the boundary condition of exclusive pedestrian phase are discussed.