With the analysis of the psychotherapy for the student, who had failed his college entrance exams twice and then prepared for those of the following year for a long period of time, his daily feelings were clarified and then a hypothesis was formed about his psychological mechanism. The Baum Test in which the client succesively drew the picture of a tree brought out the truth in relief how the ego of a 19 years-old student was in conflict between the outer issue of overcoming the "entrance exam" and the inner issue of pursuing "the independence from his parents." Analyzing this test, with the recollection of his younger days by the client who has come to adulthood and the result of the psychological test (Twenty Answer Test, Motoaki Inkblot Test Atype), the author put forward the following hypothesis. The young man, who could not rebel against his parents, tried to achieve the higha-level ego integration through the independence from his parents at the time of the entrance exams during his adolescence. He continuously failed the exams in order to eliminate his parents'expectations. That is to say, repeatedly failing exams might be the utmost coping behaviour for the weak ego of the young man to make the parents give up and regain himself. On the contraly, it is considered that his ego was strong enough to conduct such coping behaviour, which suggested the possibility of ego restructure based on its strength.
A press often criticises ill-mannered behavior by high school students disturbing smooth traffic flow of crowds of commutation passengers in a train. The problematic behavior is evoked by their group-oriented behavior such as walking sluggishly in a group, gathering just in front of train doors, and securing unnecessary seats.We examined the behavioral characteristics from the viewpoint of cultural-psychological studies on self (e.g., Kitayama, 1995). A questinnaire survey was conducted to clarify the relationship between usual behavior on their way to school and their self image -"independent and interdependent construals of the self." The results showed the following findings. First, their behavior in trains can be classified into four categories. Second, weak "individuality" and high "evaluation apprehension" generate group-centered behavior.Based on these results, the possibility that not only high school students but also college students or even adults have enough potential to ill-mannered collective behavior in a train was discussed because the above two characteristics are dominant in Japanese self constructs for all age groups.
This study is based on the study which was conducted by Ochiai and Sato in 1996. This previous study revealed that friendship in adolescence was worth studying. In this study friendship in adolescence was examined further.Based on a preparatory investigation, a questionnaire was made which contained 145 items. Subjects were 754 students. They were junior high-school, high-school and university students. As result, friendship in adolescence was classified in 16 patterns. Two basic factors were found from this study. One is the depth of friendship. The other is the psychological approach. Furthermore, boys tend to hide their mind and have independent attitude toward their friends.On the contrary, girls tend to open their mind and have interdependent friendship.
In some earlier studies, it has been indicated that juvenile delinquents show present orientation, have narrow time extention, and are indifferent to their own future. I maintain that it is necessary to support these results by the case study. In the analysis of narrative, on the other hand, it shows that narrative is related to the time in personal experience.In this study, I set up the hypothesis that the change of narrative happens simultaneously with the change of time perspective with an interviewee, and I picked up the case of narrative of a senior highschool student having a personal interview for stealing motorcycles, and analysed the case. The findings are as follows. (1)In the first stage, interviewee's consciousness is full of incidents at present and he often uses terms transmitting informations. (2)In the second and third stage, when he tries to consider concretely about his own future, he often uses terms showing strong will and objectivity to his actions. These show that it is possible to understand the process of mental development of the interviewee through the analysis of the change of narrative style.