Counseling services for university students in Japan had started from an urgent necessity to help restore student's various psychological maladjustments and the prevention of suicide. The first counseling clinic was established at Tokyo University in 1953. At present students who visit our clinic generally have a strong desire to improve themselves. They expect counseling to meet their internal needs. It is supposed in the new century people will agree that the desire to actualize themselves will be a universal human theme. Especially in universities, students will be challenged to face these themes by a supportive relationship with counselors. In this thesis, counseling strategies to help self actualization have been sought based on the data of twenty years of counseling practices. For this purpose, fifty cases from the early nineteen ninties were analized to reveal their personal tasks such as rebuilding themselves. Eight groups of elements were detected. The result of this analysis suggests that campus counseling which values the spontaneous challenge of rebuilding oneself is a way of surmounting the passive paradigm of psychotherapy for disturbed students.
Recently, main topics in the identity research focus on its life-span development and on the models which integrate gender and cultural differences. Transition research is useful to examine these topics. In this study, the life tasks which female students have in their period of adolescence and early adulthood (70 freshmen, 83 juniors, 61 seniors, 209 graduates two years after their graduation) are examined, based on life task study in the purposive research (Zirkel & Cantor, 1990). As a result, the appraisals and these structures of normative life tasks are changing. Especially, the freshmen and the graduates have more characteristic structure of appraisal about life task, calculated by factor analysis, than others. So, it seems that freshmen and graduates struggle to adapt to their daily lives. And both those life tasks on the individuation and on the attachment function together in each grade. These results are useful to investigate many topics in the recent identity research.
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognition of one's mother using life history written by 98 female nursing students. From their life history divided in 4 periods, descriptions of mothers were drawn, categorized and analysed how the cognition of mothers in each period is, and whether it varies with 4 periods. The main results were as follows: 1) The feature in descriptions of mothers in each period nearly corresponded to the results of cross sectional studies in developmental psychology. 2) Adolescents who describe intense problems in relationship with mothers and whose relationship with mothers is rare or emotionless at present were apt to describe their mothers in the past similarly, but adolescents whose relationship with mothers is good and who describe moderate problems at present described their mothers in the past variously. 3) There was the relation between descriptions of mothers in high school periods and that in infancy-childhood, especially in case where they had intense problems. 4) Some adolescents who described intense problems in infancy-childhood showed improvements in later descriptions. That suggested that the quality of relationship with mother is affected by relationship with other persons.