Development of self on adolescence is the process of change from relation-dependent self to individualized self. The purpose of this study is to investigate aspects of individualized self in late adolescent women in the relationship with same-sex informal group, which is close and interdependent friendship characteristic of early and middle adolescent women. Subjects were 125 junior college women. As the first method, image drawing was used and subjects drew image of the relationship between oneself and group. These drawings were classified depending on following: 1. Whether or not the self is identified. 2. How the area representing self is constructed in the relationship with others. As a result, two frameworks (1. Whether the distinction between oneself and others is "active or passive". 2. Whether the level of individuality is "individual or relative") were extracted as the point of view grasping aspects of their individuality. Furthermore, as the second approach, interview was administered to 14 subjects among 125, and 5 examples that were typical of aforesaid two frameworks were investigated particularly.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of orientation toward ideal self, i.e., the orientation toward actualization of ideal self, from both positive and negative points. We examined positive meaning from the relationship between orientation toward ideal self and the degree of self-development and negative meaning from the relationship between self-evaluation and orientation toward ideal self. We requested 638 university students to answer the questionnaire. As a result, it was shown that orientation toward ideal self was significantly positively related with expectation of future self-development and evaluation of past self-development, and it insisted that orientation had positive meaning on this point. The negative meaning of orientation toward ideal self, however, couldn't be found clearly. With further investigation, which implied that orientation toward ideal self was also related with acquirement of steps and acts to actualize ideal self, these results would be caused not only because that orientation toward ideal self meant the strength of one's heart but also because that it was followed the steps or acts to actualize ideal self.
The present study attempts to explore female college students' criteria for judging the presence or absence of gender equality in various issues. Literature on sex role attitude measures suggests negative attitude toward sex role as the only criterion for defining gender-egalitarianism, whereas several studies on sex role attitude and feminist studies suggest more than two criteria. On the other hand, the social justice theory indicates possibility of diverse criteria in determining gender equality. Thus, to determine the judgment criteria for gender equality issues, 31 female college students were interviewed. Results indicate that not only several criteria, but also different criteria are used in judging gender equality in different domains. For public domain, equal opportunity, the principle of individual's ability, the principle of effort, and the principle of need; for private domain, the principle of traits of men and women, and procedural justice (discussion); for personal domain, the principle of equality and procedural justice (based on one's decision) seem to be used in determining gender equality.