The purposes of the present study were to investigate the relationship among enervation, identity development, and family functioning, and to analyze their differences between male and female university students. Passivity Area Scale by Shimoyama (1995), Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale for Japanese, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III (FACES III) for Japanese were administered to 223 freshmen. The main results were the followings: (1) The enervation in the area of class was not related to identity development both in male and female students. (2) The enervation in the area of study as well as campus was related to whole stage of identity development in male students. On the other hand, in female students, the enervation in the area of study was hardly related to basic identity, and the enervation in the area of campus was related to identity based on relatedness. (3) The family functioning influenced the enervation in the area of study and campus through identity development in male students. On the other hand, in female students, the family functioning hardly influenced their enervation.
This study examined the relationship between longitudinal changes of life histories and those within interpersonal frameworks, investigated at two developmental stages, late adolescence and early adulthood. The subjects were 35 females who wrote life histories and responded to Internal Working Models questionnaires, first in 1994 as nursing students, then again in 2001. An analysis was performed, assessing the relationship between the two life histories' similarities and heterogeneities, and calculating the changed Internal Working Models scores. Results showed that in early adulthood, concrete past interpersonal relationships were viewed more positively than before, regardless of any change in the interpersonal framework, demonstrating that a change in description was not related to a general change in interpersonal framework. More positive past descriptions were seen mostly in the middle group of changes in interpersonal frameworks, rather few in the increase group, with two subjects with three negative changes in the increase group. In subjects with the highest change scores in both increase and decrease, there were the same changes in life history. With others, the change in the two factors did not correlate.
The purposes of this study were to develop a separated-identity scale (SIS) and a related-identity scale (RIS), and to examine the concepts of the separated-identity and the related-identity in adolescents. Study I (Items were chosen based on the definition of separated identity) was completed by 290 university students. Factor analysis yielded 3 factors. The 12-item SIS was completed by 232 university students. Reliability and validity of the SIS were confirmed. Study II (Items were chosen based on the definition of related identity) was completed by 270 university students. Factor analysis yielded 7 factors. The 24-item RIS was completed by 192 university students. Reliability and construct validity of all the RIS were confirmed. But there is enough reason to reexamine the reliability and validity of certain factors. The results showed as follows: (1) The separated-identity of males was superior to females and the related-identity of females was superior to that of males. (2) The separated-identity had a negative relationship with "Neuroticism", while the related-identity had a positive relationship to "Extraversion", "Conscientiousness" and "Agreeableness".
The present study examined the nature of difficulties for undecided students of faculty of education. A questionnaire was administered to 572 junior students in November. It contained revised Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (Gati et al., 1996). On responses to the scale, factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted, which produced seven factors and six subtypes of undecided students. The subtypes were different as to sense of comfort (Jones, 1989) and indecisiveness, so the clusters were consistent with groups which preceding studies constructed. Most factor scores for each difficulty didn't vary much in the same subtype, whereas in case of 'interest' and 'method for decision making' factors two clusters ranked higher order compared with other difficulties. Sense of comfort for career decision making was most correlated to how much confidence about interest he/she had. And two-way ANOVA examined effects of alternative-depended factor (whether teaching profession had been one of his/her alternatives or not) and decided/undecided factor on sense of each difficulty.