The objective of this study was to identify the processes and conditions of the career independence of "freeters," which is a process they use for selecting career paths to become financially independent of their parents and to realize personal and societal values. This paper is divided into four sections: First, we briefly review the discussion on freeters in Japan and point out their psychological problems. Second, we examine the relationship between the freeters' career patterns and the normal ones, which are considered desirable in traditional career development theories, and indicate the shortcomings of these theories. Then, we introduce a new theoretical framework called the career construction theory (Savickas, 2002) for explaining the career paths of freeters. Third, in discussing the career independence of freeters, we describe the importance of the idea of time perspectives, and clarify how to support freeters in their independence by considering their time perspectives. Fourth, we suggest practical possibilities for providing support to freeters. Finally, based on the above discussions, we speculate the issues that are important for examining the career independence of freeters and list the prospects for the new stream of adolescent psychology.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE), mental health and mood states by application of the concept of basic trust as defined in Epigenetic Theory (Erikson, 1950/1995). A questionnaire was administered to 285 university students. The result showed that while GSE does correlate with mental health, basic trust correlates both with it and positive mood states far more strongly. Basic trust accounted for 31.4% of variance in mental health, whereas GSE accounted for very little. In addition, the result showed that however strong a person's GSE rating is, people are not mentally healthy if they do not also have basic trust. In conclusion this study showed that strong GSE was not equal to mental health. Previous studies of GSE had focused only on the relation between health and GSE. This study suggested that we need to take into account other factors such as basic trust and conduct more studies to understand the construct of GSE.
This research examined aspects of deadlock that students experienced during studying. I illuminated the characteristics of the problems for each academic year based on the consultations for new clients conducted by a student counseling organization (511 cases). Then, using psychological interviews (eight cases) with clients, I examined the essences of their studying problems. As a result, the degrees of unfitness of the clients due to decreased study motivation and poor grades were significant. In the first-year, there was a group of students whose degree of unfitness was so high, that the problem of forming their own autonomy was closely connected to their studying habits. As for the second and third years, problems that had previously been shelved, such as restructuring of the object or subject being studied, etc., had become obvious. As for the fourth year, when they were deciding the shape of their preparations for graduate research and thesis, some students felt anxious about how to represent their studies. It was suggested that enduring these anxieties would have a significant effect, causing them to question their own identity again.
The purpose of this study based on Ego Identity Status Approach was to examine the processes and their factors about identity development in late adolescence from "crisis" and "commitment" point of view in the past and present, and the transition pattern of Ego Identity Status. The main results were as follows: The way of rating Ego Identity Status should be revised regarding "commitment" (Marcia, 1966), that is "have explored / be committing", "be exploring / will be committing", "cannot explore / cannot commit", "intend not to explore / intend not to commit", and "have not explored / is committing." Ego Identity Status in the past was rated by "crisis" and "commitment", and one in the present was classified by "crisis", "commitment", and "future perspective." And "future perspective" was available for classifying Identity Achievement and Moratorium. This study proved that the identity development in late adolescence was explained as a process of "self-identity → psychosocial-identity" (Mizokami, 2004). The other side, identity development on the transition pattern of "D1 (Identity Diffusion 1) → Dl" was blocked because second separation-individuation was unsolved.
This study aimed to show developmental changes of mother-daughter relationships between late adolescence and early adulthood, and also to examine whether or not mother-daughter relationships would be different when they lived together or apart. Questions regarding mother-daughter relationships were asked to three participant groups: undergraduate students, unmarried working individuals, and mothers with small children. Factor analysis identified five factors: support for the mother, past confrontations and conflicts, control by the mother, reliance on the mother, and dependence on the mother. Analysis of variance with two factors, life stage and living together or apart, indicated the following: (1) as a daughter grew older, control by the mother and dependence on the mother decreased while support for the mother increased, and (2) compared to the daughters who lived apart from their mothers, control by the mother and dependence on the mother were stronger for those who lived with their mothers, and the difference was particularly significant for working individuals in adulthood and married individuals. Based on these findings, the paper suggested how adult Japanese females continue to be physically as well as mentally dependent on their mothers by living with them, even after graduating from school and becoming economically independent.