This study sought to clarify the relations between undergraduate students' styles of reaction to parental expectations and their sense of identity. A 63-item questionnaire relating to reaction styles, degree of parental expectations and the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (MEIS; Tani, 2001) was responded to by 221 undergraduate students. Factor analysis extracted 8 factors, including positive acceptance of, rebellion against, and compromise with the expectations, and esteem for one's own way of life. Also, the higher the parental expectations, the greater the burden experienced by both males and females; males rebelled and recognized the limits to which they could meet the expectations while females ingratiated themselves superficially with respect to the expectations. Finally, The more sense of identity was established, the less respondents felt burdened by and rebelled against the expectations, and the more they compromised with parental expectations and had higher esteem for their own way of life. Consequently, it may be important to have an invariant sense of self and a sense of time continuity as well as to define oneself through meeting a variety of people socially.
People are often hurt psychologically through others' words or actions in an everyday social context. Despite of the potential problems caused by these experiences, these phenomena has remained unexplored in Japan. In this study, we have explored (1) the contents and characteristics, and (2) the psychological outcomes, of people's hurtful experiences. To achieve this, we analyzed 351 university students' free descriptions of their most hurtful experiences, which were caused by others. We found that hurtful experiences (1) are caused by the concept of "relational devaluation", which occurs when significant others attack the person either with verbal or indirect aggression. These hurtful experiences (2) yield self-distortion (low self-esteem) and interpersonal maladjustment.
This research examined the factors influencing the change of adjustment in the feeling of university students regarding studies after they enroll into university with the aim of studying. A longitudinal interview survey on 11 freshmen was carried out over a period of six months, and the interview data was analyzed within the framework of the grounded theory approach. The results of the data analysis revealed six categories, which were merged into two higher-order categories: (1) reality shock toward studies and (2) coping with the reality shock. The reality shock toward studies could be defined as a disparity between what the students expected from the studies before university administration and what they actually learnt. The results suggest that the participants' adjustment in their feeling of studies was influenced by this reality shock, but they did not experience maladjustment because of their ability to cope with the shock.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a daughter's cognition of her mother in adolescence and adulthood, and the factors that determined that relationship using longitudinal data. The participants were 20 female nursing students who were interviewed 11 years after they wrote their life histories. Several patterns in the participants' cognition of their mother in the 2 periods were identified on the basis of the following points: (a) the goodness-badness of their cognition of mother untill adolescence, and (b)the positivity- negativity of their cognition in adulthood. We analyzed typical cases in each pattern, and examined their features and contributing factors. The main factor found to affect the participants' cognition of their mother in adulthood was their cognition in adolescence: in the interview two-thirds of the participants stated still retained the cognition described in their life histories. On the other hand, some of the participants mentioned the positive aspects of their cognition of mother, even though they described problem in adolescence. Some told positively what they had described negatively, and some found out positive aspects keeping negative cognition. Besides their cognition of the goodness-badness in their life histories, the cognitive development and situational factors also effected changes in their cognition. This showed that the change could be attributed to both how serious the problems they described in their life histories were and to their degree of cognitive development and situational factors. We found that there was no relationship between the pattern of change and factors such as whether they were married or had children.
We examined the relationship between a sense of alienation and the gap in psychological distance in friendship. Psychological distance was measured by an original projective test technique. The psychological distance of the real and the ideal were measured by placing a sticky dot on a 9.5-cm line printed on a piece of paper and then drawing a circle along the line. By this method, the respondent was asked to quantify their own psychological distance from a friend and the friend's psychological distance by guessing the friend's feelings. This technique is visual and easily understood. We considered that the act of physically placing a sticker gave further emphasis to the act of "placing" the person. Subjects in the group that did not have a gap in psychological distance felt less alienated than those with a gap. Lack of self-expression, lack of mutual understanding, and physical factors were considered to be the determinants of the presence of a gap in psychological distance. Moreover, some people felt the need to distance themselves so as not to interfere.
Relationship between developmental changes in the style of making reflections and inferiority feelings in adolescence was investigated. Adolescents (n=535) were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 15 items inquiring about their reflection style, and 40 items inquiring about feelings of inferiority. Results of cluster analysis revealed four clusters: (1) Interesting to self type, (2) Avoiding reflections type, (3) Conflicting type, (4) Deeply reflecting type. More junior high school students belonged to the Interesting to self and avoiding reflections type, more high school students belonged to the Conflicting type, whereas more university students belonged to the Conflicting and Deeply reflecting types compared to other age-groups. Moreover, nearly all the students belonging to the Avoiding and Conflicting types had stronger inferiority feelings than those belonging to the other types.