Psychological functions of sharing among junior high school friends were examined and the relationship between shared objects and psychological functions of sharing was investigated. Participants were junior high school students (N=1068). The result of factor analyzing items on psychological functions of sharing indicated the following six factors: "motivation", "increased pleasure", "friendly evaluation from others", "increased feeling of burden", "achievement evaluation from others", and "increased negative evaluations from others." Descriptions of objects shared with friends were classified into eight categories and psychological function of sharing scores was compared for the most important shared object. Result indicated the following; 1) "psychological sharing" such as "feelings" and "goals" had positive functions. 2) "Material sharing" such as "things" did not have either a positive or negative functions. 3) "Behavioral sharing" such as "chatting" and "school activities" had negative functions. These results suggest that friendships that included "psychological sharing" increased "motivation" and "pleasure" in junior high school students, and was deeper than friendships based on "behavioral sharing" and "material sharing".
Relationships among situations that provided adolescents with opportunities for psychological growth, resulting emotions and behaviors leading to growth, as well as their relationship to attachment styles were investigated. The main results indicated the following. (1) Improvements in interpersonal relationships were the most common, whereas interpersonal failures were the second most common opportunity for psychological growth. (2) Two processes of psychological growth were identified, a process of having daily conversations after experiencing positive emotions resulting from improvements in interpersonal relationships and disclosing after experiencing emotional distress or self-disgust resulting from a negative event. (3) Adolescents with a fearful attachment style tended to experience emotional distress when faced with an opportunity for psychological growth.
This research examined, twice a month, the relationship between the change in attachment styles and reaction of romantic partners in their youth. Of the 287 couples that are presently in a romantic relationship, 65 couples responded to our questionnaires once whereas 28 couples responded twice. The questionnaires were composed of a scale measuring attachment styles, and items related to love, cognition of the romantic partner's response, self response, an attribute of the participants, and the status of relationship. The results were as follows. 1) Approximately 70% of the respondents' attachment styles were stable, same as that of a European-American research. 2) Change in attachment styles was related to change in the cognition regarding the reaction of the romantic partner. However change in attachment styles was not related to the reaction that the romantic partner self does. 3) The participants who recognized the romantic partner as "most important" were more likely to change their attachment styles than the participants who did not.
The present study examined whether the captain's leadership affects the club members' interpersonal skills and their adjustments to club activities in junior high school extracurricular athletic clubs, and whether the characteristics of club activities (such as individual sports and team sports) also affects the adjustment. The interpersonal skills were constructed of non-inclusive attitudes toward members of other small groups, active self-assertion, and egoistic self-assertion. Participants, 495 seventh-grade students belonging to athletic clubs at 6 junior high schools, completed a questionnaire. The following significant result was obtained: When diligent captains in team sports clubs were authoritarian, the members who were non-inclusive toward members of other small groups were more satisfied with the atmosphere in their clubs than when the diligent captains were non-authoritarian. We conclude that the relationship among characteristics of athletic club activities, club members' interpersonal skills and their captains' leadership style had a great influence on members' satisfaction to club activities.
This study aimed to clarify factors of resistance against gratitude to parents in adolescents. Participants were junior-high school, high-school, and university students (N=191) who answered about their frequency of resistance against gratitude to their parents and described the factors of such resistance. Around half of the participants felt resistance against gratitude to their parents. High-school students tended to feel more gratitude to mothers than did junior-high school and university students, and female students tended to feel more gratitude to their father than did male students. Secondly, eleven factors of resistance against gratitude to parents were identified: shyness of gratitude to parents, self-immaturity, excessive intervention by parents, low concern about oneself from parents, coerciveness into parents' sense of values, criticism of parents' personality, aversion to parents, blaming parents as roots of oneself, doubt that parents love oneself, doubt about equality of parents' love between siblings, and doubt that parents' loving is not egoism. Finally, three categories were obtained from these eleven factors: insufficient maturation, dissatisfaction with parents, and doubt of parents' loving oneself.