This study aimed to clarify undergraduate students' styles of sharing with close friends at their university. Participants were 972 undergraduate students who responded to a 75-item questionnaire relating to styles of sharing, satisfaction, and depth of relationship with university friends (acquaintances, good friends, or best friends). The results were as follows. (1) Six styles of sharing with friends were identified: sharing relationships, places, feelings, intentions, items, and sensitivity. (2) Scores for all six styles of sharing were higher in the order of best friends, good friends, and acquaintances. (3) Irrespective of level of intimacy, sharing in relationships increased satisfaction and depth of relations. On the other hand, sharing worries or negative feelings decreased satisfaction with all three types of friends, but stimulated deeper relations with both good and best friends. In addition, sharing items decreased satisfaction with good friends and depth of relations with best friends. Results show that close friendships among undergraduate students involving sharing relationships, places, feelings, intentions, and sensitivity was based on psychological bonds, and such sharing might decrease satisfaction but deepen relations with close friends.
The purpose of this study is to explore factors which affect the degree and change of freshmen's sense of adjustment to university during the first 6 month. Investigations on freshmen were performed three times (April, July, October, 2007) . Participants were 189 freshmen, 99 males and 90 females. They were asked to respond to the following questions, 1) whether or not it was their first-choice university, 2) their level of confidence in admission to their chosen university, 3) the degree of adjustment to university life, and 4) the tendency of their peer relationship. A correlation analysis and an analysis of Latent Curve Model revealed as follows. First, the degree of their adjustment to university gradually went down from April to July. Second, Female freshmen showed a higher degree of adjustment than male freshmen. Third, freshmen who thought their universities were their first choice and had more peer-oriented tendency showed higher adjustment to university life right at the beginning of the first year, and their adjustment level went down gradually. From these results, the process of adjustment to university among freshmen and issues regarding future investigations were discussed.
This paper aims to reveal the characteristics of autonomous academic motivation in university students and to investigate the relationship between such motivation on the one hand and learning and career on the other. In study 1, 272 university students completed a questionnaire. An academic motivation scale was developed that had 3 subscales: intellectual curiosity, improvement orientation, and anxiety about the future. In study 2, 402 university students completed a questionnaire. The relationship between academic motivation and need for self-determination was examined, as was the impact of academic motivation on class performance, learning performance, and vocational commitment. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling suggested that intellectual curiosity and improvement orientation together constitute autonomous academic motivation. Further, improvement orientation could be related in particular to career; intellectual curiosity, to learning. As anxiety about the future was not related to learning, the former could be qualitatively different from intellectual curiosity and improvement orientation.
This study examines the impact of social attitude of modern Japanese youth on their views toward regular and part-time workers. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 902 regular and part-time workers in their 20s to early 30s. A pass analysis by SEM yielded the following five results: 1) the factors that impacted young people's views of regular and part-time workers were completely different, 2) those with keen "progressive" social attitude had strong positive and negative views of regular workers, 3) those with keen "tradition-averse" social attitude had a strong negative view and a very low positive view of regular workers, 4) those with keen "sensory" social attitude had a positive view of regular workers, and 5) work life after graduation, familial relationships at home, friendships during school life, and grades had an impact on young people's views toward regular and part-time workers. Based on these results, this study considered the relationship between the social and occupational attitude of modern Japanese youth as well as the leading factors impacting both social and occupational attitude.
This study, conducted in two parts, aims at developing a scale of "one's view on the past," measuring it from various aspects. In Survey I, free descriptions about "one's view on the past" were obtained from 109 university students. The descriptions were categorized and organized using the KJ method. Content validity of the free description was confirmed, based on which a list of 94 preliminary items of "one's view on the past" was developed. In Survey II, 252 university students completed the above questionnaire. One factor analysis and two principal component analyses on three aspects of "one's view on the past" yielded five subscales: connection of psychological time, positive attitude, negative attitude, practical attitude, and negative cognition. The goodness of fit concerning the three factor structures was confirmed. Coefficient correlation between five subscales of "one's view on the past" and "time attitude" about past and future revealed the validity of the scale. This study demonstrated that "one's view on the past" comprised of elements related to "connection of psychological time," "attitude to past," and "cognition of past." Implications of obtained results are discussed.