The first purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of intention for self-change among university students, and the second purpose was to investigate how these aspects are related to personality development and psychological adjustment. In study 1, a questionnaire survey regarding the relationship between intention for self-change and ego identity statuses was administered to 304 university students. In study 2, a questionnaire survey pertaining to the relationship with intention for self-change and self-esteem was administered to 264 university students. The results were as follows: a) intention for self-change could be decomposed into nine aspects, b) the scores of these aspects for participants with Achievement and Moratorium statuses were higher than were those for participants with Foreclosure and Diffusion statuses, and c) the aspects salient for participants with the Moratorium status were related to low self-esteem. From these results, characteristics of intention for self-change were discussed from the viewpoint of personality development and psychological adjustment.
This study had four purposes: (1) to create two scales related to the time spent alone by undergraduate students; (2) to examine the relationship between how the students spent their time alone, and their thoughts and assessments about spending time alone; (3) to examine what types of groups with what characteristics were observable, specifically as to how the subjects spent time alone and what their thoughts and assessments were about spending time alone, and (4) to examine the relationship between ego identity and how the subjects spent their time alone and their thoughts and assessments about spending time alone. An investigation was carried out using a questionnaire given to 347 undergraduate students. The results revealed the following. (1) Their thoughts and assessments about spending time alone could be described, using four subscales: loneliness/anxiety, desire for independence, fulfillment/satisfaction, and desire for isolation. (2) How the subjects spent their time alone also comprised four subscales: self-introspection, self-liberation, immersion in personal activities, and release from stress. (3) A cluster analysis identified five different cluster groups: the Anxious-When-Alone Group, the High-Desire-for-Independence Group, the Moderate Group, the Feeling-One’s-Way Group, and the Desire-for-Isolation Group. (4) A path analysis found that the way in which students spent their time alone, and their thoughts and assessments about spending time alone, had an influence on ego identity.
This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICSJ) and evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and concurrent validity of this measure. University students (N = 435) participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a three-factor model provided a better fit than alternative one- and two-factor models within the global, educational, and interpersonal domains for this scale. An analysis of Cronbach’s α coefficients showed good scale reliability. In accordance with our hypotheses, correlation analyses revealed that commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment were significantly related to measures of self and personality, psychosocial problems, and parental relationships within the educational domain. However, within the global and interpersonal domains, concurrent validity was not confirmed. Implications for validating the U-MICSJ interpersonal domain are discussed.