Individuality Based Identity Scale (IBIS) and Relatedness Based Identity Scale (RBIS) were developed. In Study 1, adults and adolescents (N = 521) responded to items based on definitions following Josselson (1992, 1994), Okamoto (1997, 2007), and Yamamoto (1989). Then, factor analysis was conducted on the responses made by participants, which identified 14 factors comprised of 85 items. The study also established the reliability of the 85-items prototype scale (α =.66〜.94). In Study 2, the newly developed scales, the Identity Scale, the Fulfillment Sentiment Instrument and the Ito Sex Role Scale were administered to adults and adolescents (N = 315). Results indicated the validity of the IBIS and RBIS that consisted of 13 factors and 81-items, after dropping one factor with unconfirmed validity. Short versions of IBIS and RBIS consisting of 52-items were developed.
Effect of the quality of development until adolescence and internal working models (IWM) measured in adolescence on adaptation in adulthood was investigated using longitudinal data from late adolescence to adulthood, in order to clarify stability and changeability of interpersonal cognitions and adaptation. Participants were women (N = 9) in their forties that had written their life histories in 1990 and responded to a questionnaire on IWM and interpersonal cognitions related to IWM in 1991, when they were nursing students. In 2010 they responded to a questionnaire comprised of nearly identical items, as well as questions on their adaptation in adulthood. The participants were also interviewed about their experiences after their graduation, relationships with others, impressions and thoughts about child rearing and their work, as well as others issues, by using semi-structured interviews. Based on their life histories, participants were classified into three groups according to the quality of their relationships with surrounding others, such that there were three participants in each of following groups: (1) Positive; (2) Few problems; and (3) Serious problems. Using interview protocols, we analyzed participants' lifestyle and adaptation in adulthood, separately for each group. The main results were as follows. (1) Those that had good interpersonal relationships until adolescence did not necessarily have good relationships in adulthood: One that grew up in a negative environment as a child had become an adaptive adult. (2) Relationship with others, especially with spouses and their support, as well as the influence of female mentors was an important factor in determining adaptation in adulthood. (3) Childhood experiences became cognitively and consciously weak in adulthood, nevertheless, they continue to influence adult behaviors and emotions. (4) The Positive group was apt to have a sense of fulfillment in their work, and moreover, the group with few problems was apt to consider the family to be more important than work.