The capacity to be alone (CBA) is a concept proposed by Winnicott. A scale for assessing CBA that can measure anxiety in both solitude and individuation was developed, and the relationship between acquiring CBA and the internal object was investigated. University students (N = 220) responded to a questionnaire. Factor analysis of their responses using principle factor method and Varimax rotation indicated that “the Scale of Anxiety about Being Alone” consisted of two factors: “Avoidance of intimacy” “Anxiety about solitude”．Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the two factors were indicative of sufficient reliability (.91 and .90, respectively). Moreover the difference in the inner object among the following groups: “High-CBA”, “Anxiety about solitude”, “Anxiety about intimacy” and “Low-CBA”, divided by each factor score was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that “High-CBA” was characterized by an inconsistent object rather than by a good, or a bad object. The group with anxiety about solitude, which mostly tended to imagine a good object, also tended to recollect an inconsistent object. This result suggested they were vulnerable to object constancy.
In this study, we examined factors correlated with socially annoying behaviors that occur in trains, and the moderating effect of public and private perceptions. Female undergraduate participants (n = 172) responded to a questionnaire. The responses were analyzed using multiple regression analysis with the frequency of engaging in annoying behaviors as the dependent variable and the frequency of observing annoying behaviors and annoying and tolerant attitudes of other’s as independent variables. Public and private perceptions were a moderator variable. Results indicated that more frequently participants saw annoying behaviors of others; the more they engaged in annoying behaviors. In the private perception group, the more others annoyed them, the less they engaged in annoying behaviors, whereas in the public perception group, the more others were tolerant, the more they engaged in annoying behaviors. These results suggest that private perceptions do not necessarily stimulate annoying behaviors and female undergraduates control their urge to engage in annoying behaviors by considering the attitudes of others. Public and private perceptions of female undergraduates and their considerate attitudes regarding unknown others are discussed.
University students’ attitudes toward university clubs, including negative attitudes were investigated. Semi structured interviews were conducted in a pilot study with university student participants (N = 24). Then, a questionnaire survey was conducted to classify attitudes with similar participants (N = 268). Results indicated positive and negative attitudes regarding clubs, which included the following three factors. Positive attitudes were affinity (attachment to the club), responsibility (positive participation in clubs), and compromise (tolerance of the club), whereas negative attitudes were withdrawing (leaving the club), opportunism (following the trend), and cowering (considering other students). Furthermore, cluster analysis was conducted on attitudes toward clubs, which indicated the following groups: leaving oriented group, club following group, activity conflict group, management considering group, and club favorable group. The above results suggest that university students have various attitudes toward club activities. These include not only positive, but also negative attitudes.
Changes in the sense of identity from continuing or terminating romantic relationships were investigated in university students through a longitudinal study conducted at three time points. Participants were university students with a boy/girlfriend at the first survey (N = 192, 61 men and 131 women). At the second survey, the romantic relationship of 20 participants had terminated and they did not have a new partner (Time 2 ending group). At the third survey, the romantic relationship of 14 more participants had terminated and they did not have a new partner (Time 3 ending group). Two-factor-mixed-design analysis of variance was conducted on four scores of the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale, with the time of survey (3) and the state of dating (3) as factors. The results indicated that interaction was not significant for any of the four scores. It is concluded that even when young people lose a lover, they are able to maintain a sense of identity owing to feedback given during dating time by their ex-partner.