This study aimed to develop a scale measuring university studentsʼ views of Japanese society. In study 1, 111 students provided free descriptions of their evaluations of society. The descriptions were classified into 11 categories. In study 2, based on the results of study 1, the Oneʼs View of Society Scale was developed, and its validity was examined. The participants comprised 271 students. Factor analysis yielded three subscales: “negative evaluations of selfish and self-righteous people,” “positive evaluations of a peaceful and affluent life,” and “respect for efforts.” Correlation analyses between the subscales and previous scales revealed that the validity of the Oneʼs View of Society Scale was acceptable. The results revealed that university studentsʼ views of society had the following features: (a) the studentsʼ conceptualizations of their image of ʻsocietyʼ was varied; (b) they negatively evaluated society as a whole, as well as politics, media, and human relations; (c) they considered affluence, culture, and peace as positive attributes of society; and (d) most students evaluated society negatively but there were individual differences in degree of anxiety to live in society.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the attitudes regarding money and work values in university students. University students responded to the Money Beliefs Scale, Work Values Scale, Affirmative Attitudes towards Freeter Scale, Sense of Urgency toward Job Hunting Items and Desire to Get a High Salary Items. The results of multiple regression analysis showed significant positive correlations between the following subscales: equivalent value of work and self-worth and social evaluation, importance and comfortable working environments, equivalent value of work and cordial human relations, equivalent value of work and independence from the organization. However, there were no significant correlations between Money Beliefs Scale score and Affirmative Attitudes toward Freeter Scale scores. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between Sense of Urgency toward Job Hunting Scale score and equivalent value of work, difficulty of acquisition, as well as positive effects and importance. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between Importance and Desire to get High Salary Items. The significance of this study for research on attitudes about money is discussed.