Psychological outcomes achieved by university students as a result of club activities were investigated, and club activities were classified in relation to organizational traits. University students (n=459) participated in Study 1 and (n=193) participated in Study 2. The results indicated that psychological outcomes could be classified into three categories: adjusting to the group, practicing, and growth through events. Adjusting to the group was related to events that cultivated personal exchanges, practicing was related to events that completed practice, and growth through events was related to events associated with facing the self. Moreover, psychological outcomes were related to organizational traits of openness and group formality. Based on these findings, suggestions for achieving efficient group management are discussed.
In modern society, the context to which youth belongs has become more diversified and the roles that young people play are also diversifying. Further, the modern society makes it difficult to form a singular identity. The identity of “plural identities” has been proposed as a form of identity adapted by modern society. This study considered the identity formation methods undertaken by modern youth, focusing on plural identities.
In the first study, we first classified youth identity into the following three types—single identity, plural identity, and identity diffusion. Further, in our second study, interviews were conducted to examine the varying characteristics of the three identities. A young man, who was categorized as having a single identity required to choose whether or not to present himself in any given situation, depending on the friendliness and acceptance of the person he was facing. However, youth classified as having multiple identities were able to alter themselves according to the social demands placed on them, and they formed different identities for each scene.
This study investigated differences of self-confidence in communication and same-sex friendship among people in a steady relationship, those desiring a steady relationship that they do not have (Love-longing group), and those not desiring a steady romantic relationship (Love-Unnecessary group) in adolescence and early adulthood. A survey inquiring about selfconfidence in communication, same-sex friendship, and reasons to not want a steady romantic relationship was conducted with 1950 people (18 to 34 years old; Love group 750, Love-longing group 300, and Love-Unnecessary group 900). The Love-unnecessary group was classified into 4 types based on reasons to not desire a steady romantic relationship using principal component analysis. The results of an Analysis of Variance indicated that the Love group had total selfconfidence in communication and intimate friendships, the love-longing group hoped for wide and deep friendship, people who refrained from a steady romantic relationship avoided intimate friendships, and people who reported self-mistrust had totally lower self-confidence and left their friendship.