Young people do not develop their self and identity in a social vacuum, but in a continuous interactive process involving significant members of their social networks. In this article, we discuss various mechanisms through which interactions in different developmental contexts impact adolescent self and identity formation. Furthermore, we underline that this process is not unidirectional: in fact, the more adolescents achieve a clearer sense of who they are, the more they can exert an active influence in their contexts. In discussing this dynamic process, we will show evidence drawn from longitudinal studies with adolescents. Specifically, we will examine self and identity formation in the family, school, and civic contexts.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Negative Urgency Scale for Japanese adolescents, and to examine the influence of negative urgency and sensation seeking on adolescent desires for self-destructive behaviors (self-injury and risk taking behavior). Participants included 304 undergraduate and graduate students. The reliability of the scale was verified based on its internal consistency, while its concurrent validity was tested based on its correlation with physical and verbal aggression. In males, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that both negative urgency and sensation seeking were positively correlated with the desire to engage in both self-destructive behaviors. Furthermore, the score on the desire for self-injury was higher when the scores on negative urgency and sensation seeking were higher. In females, negative urgency was positively correlated with desire for self-injury, and sensation seeking was positively correlated with desire for engaging in risk taking behavior. However, the interaction between negative urgency and sensation seeking was not evident in females.
The present study investigated relationships between reasons for having sexual intercourse with an intimate partner; satisfaction with sexual intercourse and satisfaction with their relationship among university students. The participants were 141 university students who have intimate partners and have sexual intercourse with their partner. They were asked to respond to 45 questions relating to reasons for having sexual intercourse with their partner. In addition, there were a question relating to satisfaction with sexual intercourse; and further a question relating to satisfaction with their relationship. A results of factor analysis identified six factors; sexual desire, confirmation of their love, demand of their partner, pressure from society to have sexual intercourse, a method of control, and seizing an opportunity. Structural equation modeling showed that confirmation of their love increased their satisfaction with sexual intercourse, which in turn raised their satisfaction with their relationship. In contrast, in the case of males, pressure to have sexual intercourse lowered their satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and consequently their satisfaction with their relationship went down.