The purpose of this study was to examine how sharing styles and social skills relate to the development of same-sex friendships in universities. In 2011 and 2013, longitudinal surveys were conducted in July (Time1), November (Time2), and January (Time3). Fifty freshmen participated fully in these surveys. Cross-lagged effects models including “degree of satisfaction” indicated that “degree of satisfaction with their friendships” (Time2) decreased “sharing intentions” (Time3), while “degree of satisfaction” (Time1) promoted many styles of sharing (Time2). These findings show that some participants avoid sharing intentions because they prefer to maintain moderately satisfactory relationships. In addition, a negative effect of “sharing goods” was estimated from the result that “sharing goods” (Time1) decreased “degree of satisfaction” (Time2). A cross-lagged effects model including “depth of relationship” showed that “sharing relationships” (Time2) promoted “depth of relationship” (Time3). Moreover, the findings that “depth of relationship” (Time1) promoted “sharing feelings” (Time2) and “sharing feelings” (Time2) promoted “depth of relationship” (Time3) showed a mutual causal association.
The present study focused on the relationship between emerging adult daughters and their mothers. It specifically examined the developmental change in mother-daughter relationships from the perspectives of “psychological independence” and “intimacy.” Study 1 was a cross-sectional study that compared 18-24 year-old female university students (N=505) and 25-30 year-old female postgraduates (N=92) to study changes in mother-daughter relationships throughout emerging adulthood. Regarding psychological independence, emerging adult women reported increased reliability in their relationship with their mothers and individuating from them throughout emerging adulthood. Concerning intimacy, daughters reported increased solicitude towards their mothers, but not decrease in their dependent intimacy. Study 2 was a longitudinal study conducted over a year and elucidated the “mother-daughter intimacy-independence model” and study 3 elucidated the process of psychological independence in the context of the four-category model of mother-child relationships. Based on the results, some different processes of understanding mother and maturing intimacy and solving ambivalence by detaching were discussed. Finally, mothers' featuring as a factor of daughters' dependency was discussed.
Social achievement goals (SAGs) represent the orientation of achievement goals in social settings. The SAG scale has 3 subscales: social development goal, social demonstration-approach goal, and social demonstration-avoid goal. The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the SAG scale and to examine the relationship between the SAG, social skills and adjustment. Two hundred and fifty high school students participated in the study. The questionnaire was distributed in the first and third semesters. Similar to past studies, the same factor structure was indicated from the Japanese Social Achievement Goal Scale. Next, the concurrent and longitudinal influence of the SAG and social skills on adjustment in the first and third semesters was examined. The relationship between the SAG, social skills and adjustment in the first and third semesters was similar; social development goal related positively whereas social demonstration-avoid goal related negatively to adjustment with social skills acting as a mediator. Additionally, social skills also mediated the relationship between social demonstration-approach goal and adjustment in the third semester. From this research, the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the SAG were confirmed.
A scale for future orientation was developed to investigate junior high school studentsʼ dreams and hopes for the future and the types of life they intend to live. First, a pilot survey was conducted with second-grade students (N=20) enrolled in A junior high school, and a trial version of the future orientation scale was developed by referring to previous studies. Then, the trial version was administered to first and second-grade students (N=224) enrolled in B junior high school. The scale for future orientation consisting of the following four factors and 13 items was developed by using exploratory factor analysis. The four factors included “Family orientation,” “Rich-person orientation,” “Improving good sense orientation,” and “Easygoing orientation.” Reliability of the scale was verified by examining its internal consistency, which was conducted twice at B junior high school, as well as by the test-retest method. Results indicated the sufficient reliability of the scale except for easygoing orientation. Thirdly, cross-validation was examined with first and second-grade students (N=254) enrolled in C junior high school. Results indicated the validity of the scale after excluding the easygoing orientation. Therefore, the future orientation scale was developed with three factors and 10 items; Family orientation, Rich-person orientation, and Improving good sense orientation. Furthermore, criterion-related validity was examined from the perspective of school maladaptation. The results indicated that the scale had sufficient reliability and validity.