In this study, we developed the Over-Adaptation Scale-Relationship Specified (OAS-RS) for early adolescents. Additionally, we investigated different characteristics of over-adaptation towards parents, peers, teachers by examining their relationships with school adjustment and stress response, and classifying individuals based on their over-adaptation. Based on a pilot study and previous studies, the OAS-RS was developed, and 1180 Japanese junior high school students, completed the questionnaire. Factor analyses found six factors, and the correlation and Cronbach's α analyses showed that the OAS-RS had adequate validity and reliability. Additionally, this study revealed that OAS-RS scores were correlated with school adjustment and stress response, and differences in the OAS-RS scores with reference to gender and grade varied for each type of relationship. A cluster analysis revealed some clusters, which were interpreted as over-adaptation towards (a) parents, peers, and teachers, (b) parents, (c) peers, and (d) peers and teachers. Those who were over-adaptive at home (towards parents), at school (towards peers and teachers), and both (towards parents, peers, and teachers) showed lower adjustment, but those who exhibited over-adaption towards peers showed no differences in adjustment scores.
The aim of this study is to address the decline of self-esteem in puberty from a viewpoint of development of thinking, especially critical thinking disposition. The sample consists of 633 junior high school students from four schools. We conducted nine separate questionnaires. We first estimated the mean pattern of self-esteem. It showed that self-esteem declines until Time 5 (Grade 7) after that it increased; however, there was more variation after Time 5. Then we examined self-esteem across five different time points to address the decline by using a latent growth curve model. The model showed an acceptable fit to the data. The change of Individual differences of self-esteem were shown to be related to critical thinking disposition (Time 1). The results revealed that the development of critical thinking in puberty had a negative effect on the change of self-esteem: if students have a higher level of development critical thinking disposition, it predicts that their self-esteem will decline. Thus, it appears that the development of thinking would be related to the decline of self-esteem in puberty.
The present study examines the relationships among the degrees of internalization of media messages, self-consciousness, and dieting behaviors in females from childhood to young adulthood. A total of 422 elementary, junior and senior high school, and college students completed an anonymous questionnaire. The perceived media pressure to lose weight and information on thinness obtained from the media increased with school levels, especially from junior to senior high schools. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the perceived media pressure to lose weight predicted the level of dieting behaviors in the students across all school levels. For senior high school students, public self-consciousness also explained dieting behaviors, whereas private self-consciousness was related to dieting behaviors in the students in other school levels. The findings of the present study suggest that psychoeducational programs to prevent eating problems include elementary school girls as well as pay attention to heightened tendency to focus on how they look to others as one of the risk factors in high school girls.