Adolescence is a transitional period marked by substantial changes in physical maturation, cognitive abilities and social interactions, usually associated with puberty and the transition from childhood into legal adulthood and citizenship. There have been many differing psychological theories of adolescence over the last hundred years. This article investigates the theories connected with adolescence, identity formation and transitions to adulthood based on the literature and prior work on youth and social capital and youth work transitions. One perspective on the topic comes from James Côtéʼs identity capital theory, as informed by comparative research on the identities of postsecondary students in Finland, Japan and Northern American. This paper discusses different cultural meanings of adolescence, as well as the obstacles and opportunities that have impact on adolescent identity formation and transition to adulthood, with particular reference to the increasing time spent by young people with digital media such as video streams, messaging, blogs or social media. This article will point out some structural opportunities for adolescents in their transition to adulthood and how these affect contemporary adolescence.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reconsideration and intention toward ideal teacher selves in the teacher-training process, and identity development among students in teacher-training courses. A total of 867 students, including 492 students in a teacher-training course, completed a questionnaire. First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the Reconsidering in the Teacher-Training Process Scale. The factor analysis revealed that the scale consisted of two factors: “reconsidering choosing a teacher profession” and “reconsidering competence as a teacher.” Second, our findings showed that “reconsidering choosing a teacher profession,” “reconsidering competence as a teacher,” and “intention toward ideal teacher selves” correlated with “exploration” and “commitment” in identity development. Third, the scores for “reconsidering choosing a teacher profession,” “reconsidering competence as a teacher,” and “intention toward ideal teacher selves” differed significantly among identity statuses. These results suggest that reconsideration and intention toward ideal teacher selves in the teacher-training process are related to identity development among students in teacher-training courses.
“Fat talk” refers to girlsʼ tendencies to disparage their own and othersʼ bodies in conversations with their friends, which is considered to be related to body dissatisfaction. Although fat talk has been seemingly observed among young Japanese women, its effects on their body image have not yet been studied. The present study aimed to develop a Japanese version of Arroyo and Harwoodʼs Fat Talk Scale and to examine its validity and reliability. The Fat Talk Scale was translated into Japanese and administered to 760 high school and undergraduate students. A principal axis factoring analysis of Fat Talk items yielded the following three factors: “body shape dissatisfaction,” “fear of fat,” and “comparison with others.” Cronbachʼs alphas indicated adequate internal consistency. Three subscales were significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and body esteem, indicating good convergent validity. Additionally, 214 high school girls scored significantly higher on the Fat Talk Scale than did 258 high school boys, indicating good known groups validity. The present results confirmed that the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Fat Talk Scale were adequate.
This study aimed to examine the influence of sense of trust in self and other persons on oneʼs view of Japanese society among university students. Two hundred twenty-two students answered the questionnaire. Covariance structure analysis revealed that “distrust” positively influenced “negative evaluations of selfish and self-righteous people” among the subscales of oneʼs view of society. “Trust for self” positively influenced “positive evaluations of a peaceful and affluent life,” and “trust for others” positively influenced “negative evaluations of selfish and self-righteous people” and “respect for efforts.” It was revealed that the higher trust in self and others was, the more positive oneʼs view on society was. However, the higher the trust in others was, the more criticisms of people and mass media and anxiety about the future were suggested. Future tasks are as follows: (a) to investigate various participants, (b) to clarify the role of sense of trust in the formation process of oneʼs view of society, and (c) to examine the factors, other than trust, that are related to oneʼs view of society.