The purpose of the study is to examine how high school students living in rural towns develop their identity horizon on academic and vocational career choices, with social factors such as living areas, parents, and peers that could psychosocially be affected. 1,286 students (649 males, 541 females, and 96 other) from academic/non-academic high schools participated in the survey in one urban city and two rural towns. The results revealed that the identity horizon psychosocially influenced studentsʻ psychological development. In particular, their educational horizons strongly influenced their learning atitudes and competencies. Furthermore, even when academic/non-academic schoolʼs social factor had a strong impact, it was found that identity horizons could develop students psychologically. Finally, the study discussed sociological stuides that have long investigated young peopleʼsmove from rural towns to urban cities. The present study suggests that, from the psychological perspective, identity horizons or career choices are important for student learning and psychological development.
Due to the diversification of life courses in recent years, it has become difficult for college students to find adequate role models to guide their future and careers. Role models are important because college students can use them as a guideline for their future. The aims of these studies were: 1) to study the difference in career development with and without role models, 2) to develop a Role Model Scale (RMS) that measures the influence of role models, and to examine its validity and reliability, 3) to categorize role models and to articulate the characteristics of each type, and 4) to examine differences in career development depending on the types of role models.
In Study I, we created the items for the RMS based on the answers asked to college students about their perceptions of how they referred to their role models and how their career development were influenced by them.
In Study II, we developed the RMS (comprising 5 factors) as a result of factor analysis. Moreover, after conducting latent profile analysis, we classified role models into 5 types. Our results showed that the “master” and “bad example” role model types were effective for career development.