This study examined preliminarily the transition of developmental tasks and individual differences, as a kind of cognitive approach to personality, by goals and their evaluations showed by female students in college in Japan. A sample of 153 (Freshman-70, Junior-83) completed the questionnaires which included 1) open-ended questions of goals in daily life, 2) classification of goals (written at 1)) by norm life tasks (Zirkel & Cantor, 1990), 3) evaluations of norm life tasks. The evaluations of identity task by freshman are clustered, and two groups, absorption and unabsorption, are elicited from six clusters obtained by cluster analysis. Absorptions, who are absorbed in identity task, evaluate identity task more difficult and more important than unabsorptions who are not absorbed in identity task. Next, the evaluation of future task by junior are clustered, and two groups, absorption and unabsorption, are elicited from seven clusters obtained by cluster analysis. Absorptions, who are absorbed in future task, evaluate much more necessity of technology in task and more important in others' view, and they write concrete preparation of taking a job much more in open-ended questions the unabsorptions. Discussion focuses on the process of mastery and transition of life tasks, the relationship between life tasks and ego identity (Erikson, 1959).
NISHIHIRA (1995) found factors accounting for powers of recovery in ego by analysing biographies. The factors are 1) basic trust (Erikson, 1959) and health throughout the infant period, 2) competency (Erikson, 1959) from childhood to adolescence, 3) first, second and third psychological weaning, 4) a sense of mission as an identity. The purpose of the present study was to examine why Beethoven didn't commit suicide by analysing his HEILIGENSTADTER testament and his life history. Conclusions are the following. 1) He had basic trust and health throughout his infant period thanks to his relationship with his mother. 2) He had musical competency from childhood to adolescence. 3) His father influenced his super-ego, and his grandfather influenced his ego-ideal. Finally, Beethoven identified with his great grand father. 4) He felt a sense of mission in his historical identity as an artist. Thus, we can conclude with certainty that Beethoven had the powers of recovery inherent in a young ego, and this is the reason why he didn't commit suicide.
The present study aims to examine the conceptual validity of role strain as a determinant of psychological health, and to explore the effect of simultaneous occurrence of several kinds of role strain on stress response in junior high school students. The Early Adolescent Role Strain Inventory, the Perceived Competence Scale, and the Stress Response Scale were administered to 1133 boys and girls in the seventh and eighth grade. Correlational analyses showed that the high level of role strain associated with the low level of perceived competence and the high level of stress response. The findings suggest that the role strain is a crucial factor of psychological health. ANOVA showed that the students who experienced four or five kinds of role strain simultaneously reported the higher level of stress response than those who experienced one or two kinds of role strain. Moreover, it was found that the simultaneous occurrence of the role strain in peer relationships and school demands especially affected the level of stress response. These findings support the Focal Change Hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth, 1987) during adolescence.