Gender-specific medicine involves the treatment of diseases in male and female reproductive systems separately, as well as in organs common to both genders considering their biological and social differences. Biological sex determination and differentiation are driven by the interaction of genetic and endocrinologic factors. Social factors also contribute to sexual differences in diseases. Both male and female bodies have breast tissues; however, hormones affect their differences in development, structure, and physiological changes and diseases. Estrogen stimulates epithelial proliferation and is associated with mammary gland lesions. In breast cancer, elevated expression of synthetase produces estrogen. Therefore, estrogen-dependent proliferation of breast cancer can occur in men and postmenopausal women. In benign mammary gland lesions, the estrogen level is higher than normal owing to reduction in metabolizing enzymes. Breast cancer is the most important disease requiring breast surgery and is the most predominant cancer among women. Breast cancer in men accounts for only 0.6% relative to the incidence rate in women. Among female mammary gland diseases, benign lesions such as fibroadenoma and mastopathy are rarely indicated for surgery. In contrast, when men present at outpatient departments with mammary gland disease, the diagnosis is almost always gynecomastia. We herein describe the characteristics of breast cancer and gynecomastia. Although female breast cancer research is constantly progressing, more studies in male breast cancer are warranted. New results are anticipated in gender-specific medicine.
A 3-month-old girl was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease 4 days after onset and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment was started on the same day. Because IVIG therapy was ineffective, a combination of IVIG and prednisolone was administered on day 6. On day 9, the patient had hyperkalemia (6.5 mEq/L) without electrocardiographic abnormalities. The serum potassium level measured in blood collected in heparinized tubes was within normal range. We diagnosed pseudohyperkalemia leading to leukocytosis and thrombocythemia, attributable to coagulation system activation and increased release of potassium from leukocytes and/or platelets. Serum potassium levels in patients with potential hyperkalemia under these conditions may require greater consideration.
A 76-year-old woman presented with a 3-cm-sized tumor in the right axilla, with dermal infiltration. Core needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, and immunohistochemical findings revealed positivity for estrogen receptor (ER) and negativity for progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER2. She was diagnosed as having accessory breast cancer with multiple bone metastases and was classified as stage IV. Bisphosphonate (BP) therapy was initiated, and 78 months after starting BP therapy, she developed discomfort in her right femoral area, with pain on walking. Plain radiographs revealed localized thickening of the right femoral lateral bone cortex. An incomplete transverse fracture on computed tomography and low signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in the same location suggested repair process after an atypical femoral fracture because of long-term BP therapy. Bone scintigraphy, 1 year earlier, had shown slight right-sided lateral femoral uptake. BP therapy was discontinued, and the pain improved with conservative management. At present, 30 months later, no skeletal-related adverse events have occurred, and the atypical femoral fracture is stable. In this case, a suspicion of atypical femoral fracture based on symptoms of advanced disease prompted the diagnosis of an incomplete fracture. Atypical femoral fractures must be suspected in patients on long-term BP therapy.