The present study considers the socioeconomic effects of livestock disease, the usefulness of animal health economics in mitigating poverty associated with livestock disease, and the issues related to this aspect of animal health economics based on the application of economics in three real-world cases : foot-and-mouth disease in the Philippines, African swine fever in Madagascar, and livestock insurance in Vietnam.
Animal health economics can be considered an analytical tool that focuses primarily on human economic behaviors related to the problem of livestock disease. As the present paper demonstrates, we anticipate the application of various economic analysis techniques to the problems arising from livestock disease. Collaboration between veterinary epidemiology, which studies the emergence of diseases in groups of animals (as well as animal behavior), and economics (an integrated discipline known as animal health economics) can be anticipated to produce more effective measures for controlling infectious diseases among livestock.
Animal diseases cause economic losses to the farmers by the death of animals, reduction of productivity, quality of products and market prices, and increased cost for disease prevention. Animal health economics is an important tool to quantify the magnitude of animal diseases. Some examples of economic evaluations on animal diseases in Japan conducted by the author are being presented. Cost of the tick eradication program conducted in Kuroshima island, Okinawa, was ¥23,800,000 and benefit from the same program was ¥31,400,000, demonstrating the cost-benefit ratio of 1:1.3. Total loss due to bovine neosporosis in Japan was estimated to be ¥2,173,480,000/year. The total loss due to bovine mastitis in tie-stall farms in Hokkaido was estimated to be ¥10 billions/year. The total loss due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromes in Japan was estimated to be ¥28 billions/year. Through the above studies, the author has been evaluating the cost of the diseases. Further development and application of animal health economics in veterinary science is strongly expected.
Problems occurred on livestock production are related to several factors that interacted with each other, and it is difficult to quantify possible risk factors affecting to production performance. Production epidemiology is an essential tool for assessing these problems by identifying the incidence rate, relative frequency, and risk factors related to the problems using large database obtained from livestock production. Recently the livestock industry changes their standard operation procedures to improve their production efficiency and increases number of animals per farm. These changes build a large database that contains record and process of animal identifications or production event. However, an application of the database in livestock species remains under-utilized because a farmer or adviser does not have enough knowledge or time to perform epidemiological analysis. It is important to enhance our knowledge on production epidemiology to identify problem areas and improve their production in livestock production. This paper provides the concepts and the applications of production epidemiology using the production data acquired from commercial livestock operations in order to improve production efficiency.
“Guidelines for specific domestic animal infectious diseases control”, stipulated in the Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control, prescribes the control measures for prevention and containment of major domestic animal infectious diseases. As of December 2015, the guidelines for Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, Foot-and-mouth disease, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Classical swine fever, African swine fever and Highly pathogenic avian influenza and low pathogenic avian influenza (7 guidelines in total) are issued. Among these, the guideline for Highly pathogenic avian influenza and low pathogenic avian influenza was amended in September 2015, and this article gives an overview of the amendment.