Cows secreting substandard milk which had been found collectively in the Ina district of Nagano Prefecture were examined for blood, urine, feces, and quality of milk.As a result, eggs of the liver fluke were detected from all of them.Then all these cows (totaling fifteen) were administered peros with a single dose of 0.25g/kg of hekisaron, a proprietary preparation of hexachlorethane. The following results were obtained from tests performed 15 days after anthelmintic treatment. 1.Negative alcohol tests were given by six of ten cows. In two of the six cows, liver fluke eggs were still detected, but the results of the Gross react and the A/G ratio were improved. Accordingly, it was considered that the quality of their milk might have been ameliorated by the activation of liver function.Besides, no remarkable changes were observed in all the mineral contents of the blood of these cows, except dialytic calcium which increased a little. 2.Among the remaining four of the ten cows, mastitis was demonstrated in three by milk quality tests, liver dysfunction and unbalanced equilibrium of the minerals in the serum were detected in three by blood tests, excessively superfluous or insufficient amounts of feed had been given to three, and other undesirable conditions of feeding and management were found in three.In short, every one of the four cows was suffering from two or three entities of these seemingly unfavorable conditions. Remarks: By the term substandard milk the authors mean the milk alcohol-test-positive with normal acidity.
The first outbreak of bovine vibriosis in the Shikoku region occurred in 1956 in the southern district of Ehime Prefecture among dairy cows which showed such a high conception rate as 92.6 per cent in 1955.Among these cows, the conception rate was decreased to 73.9 per cent in 1956 and remained in that state in the following year. In addition, abortion became prevalent among pregnant cows since the spring of 1957, bringing about a phase of “storm abortion.” This form of epizootic was really identical with that of vibriosis which broke out in an area hitherto intact (IWATA et al.). Abortion occurred in the 5th month of fetal age as its peak and was observed from the 4 th to the 7 th months in 70.6 per cent of the total cases. When vibrio agglutination tests were performed on dairy cows kept in the contaminated district, positive tests were given by about 85 per cent of the cows tested, the percentage of cows bearing, or suspected to bear, vibrio antibody being almost 20 per cent. These results were nearly the same with those obtained from the outbreaks which had ever occurred in Kyoto, Hyogo, and Fukuoka Prefectures. Eleven breeding bulls gave negative results in bacteriological examinations of semen and preputial mucus and experimental breeding with cows. These results were not always agreeable with the epizootiological presumption. It was impossible to conclude that the breeding bulls were incriminated as reservoir of infection of this disease. When the cows giving positive and doubtful vibrio agglutination tests were treated with antibiotics, such as streptomycin, penicillin, and mastol, there was a decrease in the number of cases of non-conception and abortion due to vibrio. After an epizootic of this disease since 1956, the conception rate began to rise in 1958 and no cases of abortion have been reported due to vibrio infection.
1. The growth of baby chicks was accelerated by the administration of 500 I.U. of D3 vitamin per day per head. Such effect was not clearly recognized when D2 vitamin was given to day-old chicks. 2. When chicks were examined for roentgenogram of the hip-joint region and bone calcium content, the ossification of this region was in a more advanced stage in the D3 vitamin administered flock than the untreated control and the D2 vitamin administered flocks.
Histamine poisoning is the most frequent of allergic food poisoning.Some reports have been made recently on cases of food poisoning due to putrefaction caused by histamine-producing bacteria. In November, 1958, food poisoning broke out in Kagawa Prefecture. The incriminated food was baked, soy-sauce seasoned fish prepared from a species so called karasu. The case was diagnosed as histamine poisoning, judging from the symptoms manifested by the persons involved and the histamine-producing ability of the isolated bacteria. Some tests and examinations were performed with the following results. 1. The persons involved were 23 and manifested symptoms 30 to 60 minutes after the incriminated food was taken.The principal symptoms consisted of redness of the face, conjunctival congestion, severe headache, and feeling of inebriation. 2. From one gram of the incriminated baked fish, 12mg of histamine were detected. 3. The color-appearing critical concentration of crystal histamine in paper chromatography was 5r/ml as determined by Pauly's color reaction due to diazotization. 4. The histamine-producing organism isolated from the incriminated food was Morganella (Proteus morganii). 5. The histamine-producing ability of the isolated strains in synthetic media containing histidine was 1/2 to 2/3 of the original quantity of histidine. 6. When 0.5cc of bouillon culture of the isolated histamine-producing strains was added to the emulsion of the incriminated fish and incubated at 30°C, histamine was produced in an amount of about 1.2 mg/g after 5 hours and in amounts of 12 to 28 mg/g after 26 hours, a little difference being shown among the strains.
Tissues of spleen, kidney, heart, liver, lung, and the inner coat of the aorta of equine fetus were cultured, under static, conditions, in culture medium No.199 containing 30 per cent bovine serum, by using the plasma-clot method. Strain No.142, which had been supplied by the National Institute of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, was inoculated to this culture and incubated at 37°C, passage being made through the same culture every 7 days. Recovery tests were performed by inoculating 10 and 30 cc of the viral material of the fifth generation into colts, 8 and 9 months old, respectively. As a result, pyrexia was observed only in the colt inoculated with 30cc of the viral material, on the 26th day postinoculation and the highest temperature, 40.2°C, was reached on the 28th day. The pyrexia lasted for 5 days. During this period, red blood cell count began to decrease and showed the lowest value, 4, 550, 000 on the 37th day, the initial value being about 9 million. Besides, siderocytes made their first appearance about one week after removal of the fever and were observed for about 19 days, numbering 1.5 to 11.0 per 10, 000 leukocytes. From these findings, it was considered that the experimental colt had manifested clearly the symptoms characteristic of equine infectious anemia by the inoculation of cultured virus. On the other hand, no recognizable results were given by recovery tests on colts inoculated with 60 cc each of cultured material of the eighth generation. In addition, observation was made on cell response after the inoculation of virus, but no cellular changes were noted in short-time cultures during cultivation by passage. Even after the inoculation of virus, it was not rare to observe the multiplication of newborn cells. However, the results of observations made for 44 to 61 days indicate that the first appearance of such cellular changes as were easily detected at low-power magnification was definitely earlier in the inoculated group than the control and that the degree of such changes seemed to be higher usually in the inoculated group.