A dose of bithionol was given peros to 15 sheep naturally infected with liver flukes to examine the anthelmintic effect and side function of the chemical by autopsy. As a result, a dose of 75 mg/kg (hereafter unit is omitted) or larger was efficacious to expel almost all flukes harbored. Doses of 35 and 50 showed no effect nor side function. Sheep given a dose of 100 to 200 exhibited diarrhea and inappetence, both of which disappeared in several days. A severe side efffect was caused in a sheep given dose of 300, which seemed accordingly to be close to the lethal dose of this chemical. 2. Hexachlorophene was administered to 15 sheep in the same manner as bithionol. As a result, the worms harbored in all the sheep, except one, were removed or found dead in the body. Living flukes were detected from only one sheep treated with a dose of 15 which was considered to have been parasitized with a large number of liver flukes. Inappetence was observedfor 3 or 4 days in 2 of 3 sheep given a dose of 20 and for 2 days in 1 of 3 treated with a dose of 35. When administered with a dose of 50, 3 sheep lost appetite for a few days and one of them was destroyed with unfavorable prognosis when it became impossible to stand up from recumbency 3 days after medication of the anthelmintic. Inappetence lasted for 3 days in 3 sheep given a dose of 75, two ofwhich were sacrificed on the 3rd day after medication when they became moribund with the side effect of the drug. The remaining one recovered from inappetenceonthe 4th day after medication. In conclusion, hexachlorophene exhibited much more distinct anthelmintic effect and severer side function than bithionol. Practically, bithionol can be used with safety and little consideration on side effect, although its optimum dose for anthelmintic purposes is larger than that of hexachlorophene.
The three methods of pasteurization authorized at present by law were compared with regard to effectiveness by investigating samples of fluid milk collected from plants and retail stores. Of the three methods of pasteurization, the ultra-high temperature method (at135°C for 2 seconds) gave the best results both in living bacterial and coli-group bacterial counts Although samples collected from plants gave favorable results in inspection, those collected from retail stores were inferior to those from plants in sanitary quality. These findings suggest that contamination occurred to fluid milk during transportation or display in retail stores. It should be noted that samples collected from retail stores gave positive tests for coli-group organisms, while those collected from plants were free from them. Accordingly, great care must be taken in handling fluid milk during transportation and in retail stores.
Eight piglets 35 days of age (5 days before weaning) and 8 piglets 45 days of age (5 days after weaning) were injected subcutaneously with 3 cc of hog cholera vaccine (crystal violet inactivated). After certain periods of time, all the piglets were challenged with strongly virulent hog cholera virus to investigate the duration of immunity produced in them. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. Immunity was almost lost in those piglets which were vaccinated 35 days after birth when 3 months had passed since vaccination. 2. The piglets which were inoculated at 45 days of age retained immunity so that they could stand the challenge with strongly virulent virus 3 months after preventive inoculation. They nearly lost such immunity, however, when 6 months had elapsed since they received inoculation.