The experimental animals used consisted of 25 milch cows and one mare which had been diagnosed as endometritis from general clinical findings and the results of bacteriological examination and which had remained non-conceptive for a long time. The aim of the experiment was to promote the natural healing power of the animal which constitutes the basis of the mechanism of healing. Investigation was performed on the side of the animal, as well as on the side of the bacteria involved, from a viewpoint of therapeutic treatment. For these purposes, without using concurrently any sulfa drug or antibiotic which had been employed conventionally in many cases, a cell-activating agent (karuchinomin, a proprietary product of the Toma Kaken Co., Ltd.) was administered alone. It was introduced into some uteri which had been washed with sterilized physiologic saline and others which had been intact without no cleaning treatment, in a does of 50 to 100 cc, the dose varying in accordance with the size of each uterus. In some experimental animals, this agent was injected, concurrently with the intra-uterine administration, into the gluteus muscle in a dose of 50cc. All the animals thus treated were held under continual observation. Generally speaking, turbidity disappeared from the mucus in the estrous period, the pH value of the mucus lowered, changes of the uterine wall decreased or disappeared, and the interval between the final treatrnent and artificial insemination was shortened in the treated animals, showing effective results. With the advancement of chemotherapy, antibiotics have been abused and the fundamental treatment which promotes the natural healing power is apt to be overlooked. In the chemotherapy of endometritis which takes a chronic course, it seems to be necessary to select any suitable medicine by investigating the sensitivity of bacteria to such medicine and to take the function of any therapeutic agent activating the cells of the animal concerned into consideration.
A series of compounds related to halogenated diphenyl sulfide and diphenyl methane were subjected to screening tests on the anthelmintic effect on liver flukes. As a result, it was made clear that bithionol and its close derivatives and hexachlorophene (G 11) functioned to remove liver flukes. This discovery was reported in the preceding paper. After that, the anthelmintic and side effects on sheep naturally infected with the parasite were compared between bithionol and G11. The results obtained indicate that G11 was more effective than bithionol, which could be used, however, with safety free from any side effect. They were already reported to the Japanese Society of Parasitology in October, 1959. This paper deals with the optimal anthelmintic dose of bithionol against bovine, liver fluke and the side effect of this chemical. 1. Five cows were given a dose of 20mg/kg of bithionol mixed with feed, two cows a dose of 30mg/kg, two cows a dose of 35mg/kg, two cows a dose of 40mg/kg, one cow a dose of 50mg/kg, and one cow a dose of 55mg/kg. These cows had been infected with liver flukes. The results obtained from autopsy performed within 10 days after medication were as follows. No expected effect was shown by the dosage of 20mg/kg, which killed about half the number of liver flukes parasitizing. Of the two cows given 30mg/kg each, one still harbored flukes after medication, but the other revealed a complete removal of the worms. Adult liver flukos were expelled thoroughly from all the animals given a dose of 35mg/kg or more. From the parenchyma of the liver of the cow given a dose of 55mg/kg were detected a large number of young worms, one-third of which was clearly dead. 2. When about 150 cows were administered with two doses of 15mg/kg, or a single dose of 20, 30, or 35mg/kg by the same method in field trials of bithionol, the results of egg tests indicate that the medication of these doses was effective to remove parasitic eggs from 43.3, 42.9, 66.0, and 88.0 per cent, respectively, of the cows treated. 3. From the rate at which the results of liver fluke egg tests turned negative in the field trials, and the judgment on the anthelmintic effect at autopsy, a dose of 30 to 35mg/kg seemed to be the optimal one. Diarrhea occurred, however, in a cow given a dose of 35mg/kg. Therefore, the following doses were tentatively used, taking these results into consideration. Namely, a cow weighing 600kg was administered with 18g of the drug, one weighing 500kg with 16g, one weighing 400kg with 14g, and one weighing 300kg with 12g in the second field trials. As a result, parasite eggs disappeared from 77 per cent of the cows under medication. No conspicuous side-effects were observed in any one of them.
Nine outbreaks of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis occurred successively all over the old metropolitan area of Hyogo Ward and some part of Ikuta ward adjacent to it within the city limits of Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture, during 2 period of from June 22 to July 3, 1959. In these outbreaks were involved 34 persons, of whom 3 died. S. enteritidis was detected, at the rate of 100 per cent, from the fecal specimens collected from the persons involved. When 1, 128 of 9, 028 rats caught within the city limits during the same period as mentioned above were examined for bacteria, S. enteritidis was detected from 28 of 826 rats caught in and around the area where the persons involved had been reported (the rate of detection being 3.4 per cent). The same organism was detected from one of 302 rats caught in areas not related to that in which the involved persons had been found (the rate of detection being 0.3 per cent). The isolated organisms were classified into two types, A and B, by means of phage typing. Type A was strongly virulent and type B weakly virulent for mice. From he results of survey on the occurrence of patients involved in these outbreaks of food poisoning and those of detection of bacteria from rats caught in and around the related area, it was presumed that there had been an epizootic of S. enteritidis infection among rats in the area where the persons involved had been reported and that outbreaks of food poisoning had occurred intensively on account of the food contaminated by rats harboring the causative organisms in individual houses from which the patients were detected.
Milk samples were collected separately from each quarter of the udders of 12 cows giving positive Brucella serum agglutination tests and subjected to the following tests:(1) pH test with B.T.B. solution, (2) Peroxydase staining by the Breed method (copper sulfate method) for regular and differential cell counts, (3) counting of Brucella organisms with serum agar and selective media, (4) general bacterial counts with sheep blood agar and tomato-juice agar, and (5) the determination of milk serum agglutination titers by the Weybridge method. The results obtained from these tests are summarized as follows. As long as ordinary mastitis was making no progress, the milk secreted from a Brucella-infected quarter gave a total cell count of more than 500, 000 per cc, with peroxydasepositive cells which appeared at the rate of less than 50 per cent, mostly around 30 per cent, and had a pH value of more than 6.8. The total cell count ran parallel with the shift of Brucella organisms. Among peroxydase-negative cells, small round monocytes (corresponding to lymphocytes) occupied less than 50 per cent. Besides these, large mononuclear cells, especially those with elliptic or irregularshaped nuclei, made their appearance at a high rate. These results seem to indicate that it is possible to detect an infected puarter of the udder by examining the number and kind of bacteria contained in the milk and that the degree of infection in such quarter is presumed from the results of successive observations on the quarter.
Distemper neutralizing antibodies in sera of various immunized dogs and guinea pigs were investigated by means of neutralization tests using the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo and an egg-adapted strain of distemper virus as indicative virus. The results were as follows. 1. The presence of neutralizing antibodies was hardly indicated in sera collected from three-to four-month-old puppies, but was indicated with remarkably high titers. 2. Very variable titers of neutralizing antibodies were shown in sera collected from 18 dogs clinically diagnosed as distemper. 3. In the case of guinea pigs inoculated intraperitoneally and of dogs inoculated subcutaneously with the egg-adapted distemper virus or a formolized tissue vaccine, neutralizing antibodies in sera of the guinea pigs indicated the highest level on the 21st day after the inoculation and those in sera of the dogs the highest level between 14 and 42 days. In addition, the production of neutralizing antibodies in sera collected from guinea pigs was in proportion to the inoculated dose of virus. The neutralizing antibody levels were exceedingly low in both dogs and guineapigs receiving formolized tissue vaccines. 4. Neutralizing antibodies were found in abundance in commercial immune sera or gammaglobulin products.