Studies were performed to clarify whether or not detection of inclusion bodies from dogs naturally infected with distemper had any value of clinical application to the diagnosis of canine distemper. Specimens were collected by curettage from the mucous membranes of the conjuctiva, nasal cavity, cheek, tongue, vagina, and prepuce of the penis, and examined for the presence of inclusion bodies. The results obtained are as follows. 1. In 74 (86.0 percent) of 86 dogs studied, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were detected from at least one of the specimens collected from the five localities. This indicates that the detection of inclusion bodies is of great practical value in the clinical diagnosis of canine distemper. 2. The locality or localities from which inclusion bodies were detected varied greatly according to individuals. Any significant differences were hardly observed in frequency of detection among the localities examined from a stochastic point of view. Therefore, it is recommended that specimens for detection be collected from as many localities of the body as possible. 3. No differences were present in the rate of detection of inclusion bodies among dogs which were within about 20 days after the onset of clinical symptoms of distemper.
Achlorinated bisphenol derivative was found to be effective for removal of mature worms of Fasciola gigantica from artificially infected rabbits. Two infected rabbits each were given per os 25, 50, 70, and 100 mg/kg of the new drug, and subjected to autopsy after 7 days. No living worms were recovered from all the animals, except one given 25 mg/kg, from which 2 living and 7 dead worms were recovered. Two rabbits serving as controls harbored 8 and 17 living worms in the bile duct. Thirteen sheep heavily infected either naturally or artificially were given per os 15, 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100mg/kg of the drug and sacrificed for necrospy after 7 to 10 days. All of them, except one medicated with 15 mg/kg, were found free from adult liver flukes. No side effect of the drug was shown in any of them. A total of 152 naturally infected cattle were given 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg/kg of the drug mixed with feed, and the number of fluke eggs in the feces declined to 65. 4, 73. 3, 84. 2, and 93.4 per cent, respectively, after 4 weeks. Eighty-one infected cattle were administered orally with 20, 25, and 30mg/kg in aqueous suspension contained in a beer-bottle, and the number of fluke eggs declined to 37. 4, 44. 4, and 70.3 per cent, respectivel. The drug showed a remarkably lower toxicity than bithionol or hexachloroethane. It is recommended for the treatment of fascioliasis in the field that a single dose of 25 to 30 mg/kg of the drug mixed with feed be given to a cow and a single dose of 20 to 30 mg/kg to a sheep by the oral route.
Bacterial contamination occurs very frequently during the conventional manufacturing process of tofu, or soy bean curd, a favorite food for the Japanese. Recently, tofu has come to be sold in package prepared with Hi-Zex. Since packaged tofu is heated at the final step of the manufacturing process, the sanitary quality of this food can be greatly improved. At the end of boiling at 90°C for 40 minutes, it was found that the central part of a packed piece of tofu had been maintained at 73°C, or a safetyindicating temperature, for 20 minutes, and that 1ess than 300 1iving bacteria, including no coli-form ones, were contained in 1g of tofu in a package. When a specimen of tofu was allowed to stand at room temperature (30°C at the highest) for 24 hours, it showed a living bacterial count of 103, containing no coli-form organisms in it. When another specimen was allowed to stand at room temperature for 15 minutes immediately after the process of heating, it remained at a level higher than 73°C for more than 30 minutes. Accordingly, the process of heating is satisfactory from a sanitary point of view. Packaged tofu had a heat-conducting index of 0.083. Then the temperature at the central part of a piece of tofu could be calculated from the temperature and time of heating by using the following formula: T=T∞(1-e-kt).
It is a very important fact that the growth of pigs in the suckling period is related to their future abilities. Ten healthy suckling pigs (4 males and 6 females) born from 4 sows were studied hematologically. Hemoglobin value, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, and differential leukocyte count in percentage were determined at the time of birth, and 1, 2, 4, and 7 weeks after birth. They are given below in the order of tine of collection. The hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) value (per cent) was 63.5±4.79, 44.5±4.11, 44.8±2.73, 41.5±2.56, and 63.8±1.82. The erythrocyte count (×104) determined by using Bürker-Türk's counting chamber was 457.7±9.90, 400.8±16.49, 483.2±38.33, 658.9±32.94, and 791.95±57.57. The leukocyte count determined by using Neubauer's counting chamber was 9, 780±2, 410, 9, 520±1, 810, 7, 850±1, 220, 11, 200±1, 190, and 28, 155±3, 860. In the differential leukocyte count in percentage determined with Giemsa's stain, neutrophils were 72.3±6.28, 40.7±5.67, 29.3±7.19, 28.8±7.51, and 28.2±6.82; lymphocytes were 23.4±5.96, 55.5±6.72, 65.7±8.15, 66.0±8.53, and 50.6±9.47; monocytes were 3.6±2.25, 3.3±1.4, 4.1±2.74, 4.1±1.71, and 4.1±1.86; and eosinophils were 0.7±0.80, 0.5±0.38, 0.9±0.82, 1.1±1.57, and 17.0±6.53.