A bovine case of teat trauma was treated. It had a hematoma in the area of the milk canal when examined at first. The elastic tissue forming the milk canal was not affected. The dermal opening of the canal was found connected with the mucous membrane of the milk duct and buried in this tissue. Operation was made to disclose the buried opening. As a result, it was possible to prevent complications with mastitis and induration after absorption of the hematoma, and to milk the affected animal without interruption.
For epidural anesthesia, injection was made in a dog at the lumbosacral space. This space exists in the interarcuate foramen, formed by the seventh lumbar vertebra and the sacrum. This foramen is wide (Fig. 2). Therefore, epidural puncture can be performed easily. The spinal cord is large in diameter at the level of the lumbosacral plexuses, but is reduced markedly at the level of the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae. It terminates in the conus medullaris at the level of the seventh lumbar vertebra. So that no injury of the spinal cord is induced practically by puncture with the needle. The distance between the surface of the skin and the spinal canal is as follows: Body weight Distance 5kg 1.9-2.5cm 10 2.6-3.3 15 2.9-3.8 20 4.0-4.5 Four per cent procaine solution and 2 per cent xylocaine solution are local anesthetics of choice for this procedure. The dose used was 0.4 cc per kilogram of body weight. Usually, satisfactory anesthesia developed in five minutes and lasted about one hour. The anesthetized area extended from abdomen to hindleg by a single injection. No side effects have been observed during or following the procedure. Postanesthetic troubles, such as an overdose or unfortunate reaction of barbiturates, are avoided by the use of epidural anesthesia.
Slices of raw sweet potato were spread on the concrete floor or straw-mat and exposed to the sun before they were dried by fire. In this way it was possible to reduce expenses of electricity or fuel used for drying. Labor cost, however, was high when straw-mats were used. The cost of production of fire-dried sweet potato was 22.5, 23.2, and 26.4 yen per kilogram when the concrete floor, the straw-mat' and no step of sun-drying were employed, respectively before fire-drying.
More than one thousand swine were imported from the Ryukyus and foreign countries, such as America, Australia, Holland, Poland, and Sweden in 1961 and 1962. They were quarantined at Yokohama. Serum antibodies of both hernagglutinationinhibition and complement-fixation against Japanese encephalitis virus were negative in all the swine, except those from the Ryukyus, at the time of arrival. The antibodies turned positive at a high rate by the end of the quarantine period in summer. About thirty percent of the swine imported in summer became feverish 4 to 10 day after arrival. Some of them expressed clinical symptoms, such as depression, anorexia, and abnormal delivery associated with fever. There was a close relationship between the rise in antibody titer and the appearance of such symptoms as eliminated by means of mosquito control. It was supposed that there would be infection of Japanese encephalitis virus. However, the abnormal delivery or abortion observed within the quarantine, period in summer must be studied further before it is asserted virologically that such disorders may be induced by infection with Japanese encephalitis virus. In short, it became clear that the swine imported from America and Europe had been free from Japanese encephalitis, but that they had been infected with the disease soon after their arrival in Japan in summer to manifest such symptoms as fever, anorexia, and abortion at high percentage.