Over a period from September, 1965, to November, 1967, left displacement of the abomasum was observed in 17 Holstein-Friesian cows, 16 of which were patients from 3 towns adjacent to the University Farm, which is located 60 miles northeast of Tokyo. There was nothing noticeable in diet and circumstances that might have been predisposing factors in these cows. there was no apparent seasonal relationship to the development of the disease. The onset of symptoms was approximately 11 weeks to 1 day ante-partum in 7 cases, immediately following parturition in 2 cases and 1 to 41 days postpartum in 8 cases. Simultaneous auscultation and percussion was proved to be the most rapid and reliable method of diagnosis. A high-pitched resonant ping sound was heard in all cases when percussion was done on the last ribs with the percussion hammer. In 6 cases, endoscopy via the left paralumbar fossa was attempted and resulted in confirmation of displacement. Bilateral flank approach associated with omentopexy to the right abdominal wall was used for the treatment of 12 cows in the standing position. Right paramedian approach with omentopexy to the ventral abdominal wall was performed in 4 cases. Twelve of 16 cases recovered uneventfully. Of those 12 cows, one calved twice and four once subsequent to surgery; seven were pregnant and three not pregnant at the end of November, 1967; two were sold. Four cows were destroyed after surgery because of complications, such as disseminated pulmonary abscesses originated from a piece of wire perforating the esophagus, adhesion of the abomasum with the left ruminal wall, aggravated suppurative mastitis, and displacement of the dilated abomasum to the right flank following devouring of a sheet of blanket. In the remaining one cow, in which omentopexy had not been performed on account of spontaneous replacement of the displaced organ, the condition relapsed 18 days later. Then the cow was subjected to surgical correction by practitioners.
The relationship between the environment within a milk plant and contamination of the produced milk with psychrophilic bacteria (PB) was analyzed in a plant where the UHT system of pasteurization was carried out. 1. The raw milk used contained about 108 PB. No PB were detected from any sample of sampling-cock milk or surge-tank milk immediately after collection or at 7 days of storage at 5 to 7°C. Samples of bottled milk were found to harbor 101 PB even immediately after collection. 2. Contamination was hardly observed in any machine after routine rinsing and disinfection. Exceptionally, the filling valve was proved to have been contaminated remarkably. Even a sample collected at it 4 hours after the beginning of operation contained 101 to 102 PB, which belonged to the genera Pseudomonas and Micrococcus. An adequate sanitary control was effective to reduce the contamination to a great extent. 3. No PB were detected at all from samples collected from the washing bottle or the cap. 4. The atmosphere within the plant harbored 10, to 102 PB, which belonged mostly to Pseudomonas. 5. Rather marked contamination was recognized at the fingers and clothes of employees, the floor of the plant, the conveyer, the hood of the bottling machine, and the frames of windows. Many organisms of Pseudomonas and Micrococcus were detected from the fingers and clothes of employees and the floor of the plant. 6. These results seem to indicate that the PB harbored by bottled milk are derived from the filling valve, the atmosphere of the plant, and such environmental conditions of the plant closely related to these as
A method for the detection of the first-stage larva of the bovine lung worm (BL) using a pointed-bottle centrifuge tube was reported in the preceding part of this series of studies. In the present investigation, it was compared with another method using the Baermann apparatus. As a result, there was no noticeable difference in the number of larvae released for 7.5 hours between the two methods. The former method, however, was capable of collecting two to three times as many larvae for 18 to 24 hours as the latter. A plateculture method used for eggs of intestinal nematodes almost failed to detect any larva of BL. Cattle were infected experimentally with a moderate number of BL larvae and examined for the prepatent period and the time of disappearance of larvae. In those infected with 1, 800 to 2, 500 larvae, the prepatent period was 25 to 27 days and larvae were detected for 95 days or less. The method using a pointed-bottle tube was performed in an outbreak of BL infection among 120 cattle on an island. As a result, varying numbers of larvae were detected from 87.6 per cent of the calves, of which the highest LPG was 1, 366. Larvae were found in 22.7 per cent of the adult cows, though a very few of them were harbored by each animal.