Ketosis occurred to 740 dairy cows in Ishioka, Ibaraki Prefecture, and its vicinity over an eightyear period of 1960 to 1967. A survey was conducted on these cows with the following results. 1. Of the types of ketosis, the digestive type was the most prevalent, affecting 75.3 per cent of all the cows surveyed, and followed by the accompanying type, nervous type, and milk-fever type in the decreasing order. The frequency of occurrence of ketosis was high, or 68.9 per cent within 5 weeks after parturition and 83.4 per cent within 10 weeks after parturition. This period corresponded to a stage when milk yields were increasing. 2. When the occurrence of ketosis was examined by month, the absolute number of affected cows was the largest in March. The rate of affected cows to parturient ones was the highest in February, which was followed by April and March. It was the lowest over a period from July to September. 3. When the occurrence was analyzed by the number of pregnancies, it was of high frequency among cows which had a history of 3 to 5 pregnancies and had shown the highest milk yields and among primiparous cows. 4. As clinical symptoms of bovine ketosis, depression, reduced milk yields, diarrhea, and mammary edema were observed in the digestive type, and excitement, disturbance, and hind-quarter paralysis in addition in the nervous type. The accompanying type of ketosis was induced after the development of s ome digestive or urinary disease 5. The appearance of ketone body in the urine was the most marked immediately after parturition. It was almost parallel to the severity of symptoms. In the case of ketosis appearing 8 weeks or more after parturition, however, outstanding symptoms were manifested, though the apperarance of ketone body was most strongly positive. 6. Some cases of bovine ketosis were cured successfully after treatment had been given 1.8 times on the average. It was difficult, however, to cure 5.7 per cent of the cases treated. These incurable cases were found particularly often among those of accompanying and milk-fever types. 7. Ketosis exerted influence upon the ovarian. function. When it lasted long, the ovary underwent atrophy and dysfunction and the ovulation was disturbed. The average time interval between breeding and conception was 21 days longer than that in the healthy normal cows. There was a tendency that ovarian diseases occuryed rather frequently among cows affected with ketosis.
When sausage presented a sticky surface during storage at 7°C, the microflora on this surface con, sisted mostly of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonasinstead of Micrococcaceae and Achromobacter which had been principal members of the microflora before storage. Bacon always showed a microflora composed mostly of Micrococcaceae, before storage and after the appearance of sticky condition. The sticky surface was observed in various types of sausage at 1 to 3 weeks of storage, in ham at 2 to 3 weeks, and in bacon at 3 to 4 weeks. The viable bacterial count ranged from 107 to 109/cm2 at the time of appearance of sticky condition. Generally speaking, storage in cold state reduced the proportions of Micrococcaceae and Achromobacter and increased those of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas in the microflora of the meat product.
When inoculated intramuscularly with 1.0 ml (104.5EID50per capita) of the virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus, pigeons manifested nervous symptoms, including locomotive paralysis as the principal sign, for 26 days. There was almost parallel relationship between general symptoms and the phase of propagation of virus in the body. The antibody titer rose markedly after virus propagation had reached a peak. Nervous symptoms were apparent at this time. The virus was demonstrated over a period of 3 to 10 days after inoculation, the peak falling at 5 days. Its titer was 106.25EID50/0.1ml in the lung, 105.5in the brain, 105.0in the liver, 104.67 in the spleen, 104.5in the trachea, 102.5in the intestinal contents, and 102.25in the blood. A virus transmission experiment was carried out on chickens with the feces of infected pigeons. When such feces contained virus, the incculated chickens died after showing clinical symptoms, and the virus was recovered from them.
A total of 1, 771 serum samples were collected from cattle allowed to graze in 38 pastures in 1967 and examined for the presence or absence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody against bovine adenovirus type 6. Of them, 51.8 per cent was positive for antibody. Antibody-positive sera were found in 47.4, 53.9, and 51.9 per cent of the sera collected in the early, middle, and late stage of grazing, respectively. The positive rate was the highest, or 100 per cent, in a pasture of Aomori Prefecture in the late stage of grazing and the lowest, or 5.3 per cent, in a pasture of Oita Prefecture in the late stage of grazing. Of 566 cattle surveyed, 157 showed an antibody titer of 1: 4 or higher after they were allowed to graze. These cattle were presumed to have been infected with the virus immediately before or after grazing. It was serologically demonstrated that the infection of this virus had been spread all over the country.