Fluoroscopic examination was quite helpful for making an accurate diagnosis, selecting a proper treatment, including indication for surgery, and judging a prognosis in each cases. Characteristic fluoroscopic findings in the forestomach diseases were impaction and bloat of the rumen, atony, slow and weak contraction and foreign bodies in the reticulum, atony of the abomasum, and functional disorders of the colon. In 80% of the cows with these diseases, the reticulum had sharp foreign bodies. As the tips of these bodies touched the mucosae of the reticulum, reticular contraction became unclear or less marked. These bodies might act as triggers for functional disorders of the reticulum and other parts of the forestomach, finally causing reticular and abomasal atony. In 92% of the cows with abomasal displacement, the reticulum had sharp foreign bodies and showed the same movements as described above. These findings suggested that abomasal displacement might have some relations with such functional disorders in the fbrestomach as caused by traumatic reticulitis.
The mechanism of erosion of frog epidermis in equine thrush was examined morphologically by means of scanning electron microscopy. Erosion first occurred to the tissue of the intertubular horns, and subsequently involved the decomposition of the horn tubes. Through this successive process, erosion extended to the neighboring intact epidermis and resulted in the formation of ulcerative lesions. Various types of bacteria showing rod-like, spherical, and staphylococcal forms were found solitarily or in clusters on the surface of the lesion. They seemed to dissolve actively the cornified epidermis around them. This morphological observation on the frog epidermis suggested strongly that in equine thrush microbial factors might play a considerable role in the onset and expansion of the disorder.