Biopsy was performed on 62 leukotic cows (10 for the calf, 18 for the thymic, 3 for the skin, and 31 for the adult types). The erythrocyte count was below 5.0×106/μl in 80%, 38.9%, 33.3%, and 54.8% of the animals of the calf, the thymic, the skin, and the adult types, respectively. On the basis of total leukocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts, the 62 cows were divided into three, group I of normal range, group II of range higher than normal, and group III of continuous leukocytosis or lymphocytosis. In leukocyte counts, groups II and III consisted of 70%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 54.8% of the calf, the thymic, the skin, and the adult types, respectively. In absolute lymphocyte counts, groups II and III consisted of 50% of the calf, 55.6% of the thymic, 33.3% of the skin, and 71% of the adult types. Group III was composed of 40%, 44.4%, 0%, and 45.2% of the calf, the thymic, the skin, and the adult types, respectively. An abnormal lymphocyte rate of 6% or more was seen in all the cases of the calf and skin types, and in 77.8% of the thymic and 96.8% of the adult types. An increase in lymphocyte rate of 31% or more in bone marrow was found in 85.7% of the calf, 71.4% of the thymic, 33.3% of the skin, and 36% of the adult types. Further, most lymphocytes were always abnormal. In the superficial lymph nodes biopsied, proliferation of immature lymphocytes was observed in 90%, 88.9%, 100%, 100% of the calf, the thymic, the skin, and the adult types, respectively.
Jamshidi's needle was applied to the trochanteric fossa of the femur of a recumbent dog under local anesthesia without causing noticeable pain. The collected bone marrow fiuid was used to deter-mine the nucleated cell count, megakaryocyte count, myelocrit value, and myelogram. There was a distinct correlation between the nucleated cell count and the nucleated cell value of myelocrit in bone marrow fluid. Biopsy by this needle made it possible to collect a tissue sample about 8×1 mm in size free from contusion and injury and sufficiently available for microscopy.
An attempt was made to isolate Salmonella and Escherichia coli strains from drainage of cattle and hog houses. Strains isolated were examined for drug resistance and resistance plasmid. All the 390 Salmonella strains isolated were resistant to the drugs tested, as well as 766 (91%) of 839E. colistrains isolated. As for the Salmonella strains, the patterns isolated most frequently and the ratio were quadruple (38%, TC-SM-SA-KM, TC-SM-SA-APC) and quintuple (31%, TC-SM-SA-KM-APC, TC-CMSM-SA-KM). Regarding theE. colistrains, single (31%, TC, SA) and double (23%, TC-SA, TCSM) resistance patterns were seen most frequently. A curing method was applied to nonconjugative-multipleE.colistrains and resistance markers were felt out high frequently (0.7-3.3%). This result suggested that the control of resistance might be due to the presence of plasmid. Drug-resistant strains were isolated most frequently from non-bio-circumstances. Such wide pollution would be very relevant to human and animal health.
Parainfiuenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) and bovine rhinovirus type 1 (PRV-1) were isolated simultaneously from nasal discharge samples from five of 28 cows involved in 3 outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease over a period from 1974 to 1980. They were separated from each other by a method of simultaneous application of critical dilution and immune serum, inoculation into embryonated hen's eggs, and ether treatment of samples presumed to be of mixed infection. An antibody survey revealed a significant increase in titer of antibodies against both viruses incows from which these viruses had been isolated simultaneously.
Swabs were taken for bacteriological examination from the atrium vaginae and midpoint of the cervix by using a sterile speculum and sterile sheathed swab. 1) Streptococcus was isolated from 103 of 140 heifers (73.6%) in winter and 44 of 61 (72.1%) in the grazing season. Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Escherichia, and Staphylococcus were isolated 24 (39.3%), 20 (32.8%), 11 (18%), 11 (18%) of 61 cows in the former case. Flavobacterium and Chromobacterium were isolated from 26 of 140 (18.6%) in the later case. 2) In the estrous stage (on day O), 26 of 67 heifers (38.8%) were sterile. In the luteal stage, 14 of 110 (12.7%) were sterile. 3) The sterile rate was extremely high in the deep part of the vagina in 17 of 24 heifers (77.3%). 4) In estrous, the sterile rate was 14 of 15 heifers (93.3%) in the cervical mucus. Although many species of bacteria were isolated from the atrium vaginae in the luteal stage, cervical swabs were highly sterile in 20 of 22 (90.9%) cows. There might be any chance of contamination of the uterus by introduction of pipettes through the atrium vaginae.
When milk-white tubercle-like lesions were found in the liver of swine in abattoirs, acid-fast bacteria were isolated from such organs as liver and spleen and some lymph nodes, suggesting that they might have invaded the whole body. When those lesions were restricted to the mesenteric lymph node, these bacteria were isolated exclusively from this node. The bacteria isolated were mostly of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare comples (MAT). Myco. fortuitum was also isolated. The isolates belonged to serotypes MAI 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, and 15. Pathogenicityexperiment revealed that the isolated bacteria of MAI type 3 were identical with Myco. avium.
A 7-year-old Holstein cow, which had previously given birth to 3 normal calves, delivered a full-term normal female calf (25 kg) and a dead edematous female one (20kg). Soon after, that a fetal monster (1.8kg) was extruded. It was a spherical mass covered with black short hair and attached to the dense folded fetal membrane at the bottom. The following rudimentary structures were observed in the mass: an ear, a lip, plicae paratinae transversae, several molares, two incisors, large and small papillae conicae, a compressed ruminant stomach, a mass of adipose tissue, an umblical cord-like strand, and a fluid-filled cephalocele-like cavity. This case was regarded as one of acardius acormus incompletus.