Prophylactic effects of levamisole hydrochloride (LH) on Dirofilaria immitis infection and itsside reaction in hematological and blood chemical findings were assessed in 9 infected dogs. Thesedogs were exposed to natural D. immitis infection throughout the infectious season in Japan (from Julyto Setpember). Additionally, they were infected with a single experimental inoculation of infectivelarvae on July 31 (8 dogs) or on August 2 (1 dog as control). The medicated group was given twocourses of LH at a dosage of 5mg/kg, t.i.d.(15mg/kg/day) for 5days, on 18th to 22nd August andon 20th to 24th October. Five medicated dogs were sacrificed on the 170th day (4 dogs) or the212th day (1 dog) of experimental infection and the other four on the 210th day (2 dogs) or the 218thday (2 dogs). Necropsy revealed that all the medicated dogs were free from worms in their heart and bloodvessels and that 4 controls harbored D. immitis, the mean infectious being 42.6%. Hematologicaland blood chemical findings showed no substantial side effects of LH, except a moderate increaseof serum GPT. No abnormality was recognized in general clinical findings in any dog during thecourse of experiment.
Effect of the broad spectrum anthelminthic, parbendazole, was examined on nematodes parasiticin the digestive tract of the domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. A total of 41 spontaneously infected birds were divided into 3 groups according to the nematodespecies harbored. Each group was further divided into three subgroups, one of which was a nonmedicatedcontrol and the other two received a single dose of the drug and double doses at a 24-hourinterval, respectively. The drug was administered at a rate of 50mg/kg of body weight into the crop, enclosed in a gelatincapsule with a small amount of starch. Criteria for anthelminthic effects were the expulsion ofworms in the feces, the reduction in fecal egg count, and the worm recovery rate at necropsy. Mature large roundworms, Ascaridia columbae, were effectively removed by a single dose of thedrug, and capillary worms, Capillaria obsignata, by double doses. Immature roundworms or stongylids, Ornithosotrongylus quadriradiatus, were not eliminated even by two doses. The effect of the drugwas not determined on the stomach worms of the genus Acuaria or Tetrameres because of a limitednumber of birds examined.
When a recovered carrier animal was homologously challenged with Babesia ovata, there wassometimes a rise in its immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) titer, but at other times three was not.It is suggested that such a rise may have resulted from the reestablishment of a sub-detectable infection.Such rises in IFA titer were consistently found in grazing cattle in an enzootic area overa three-year period, but not found during the intervals when the cattle were housed. This suggeststhat those cattle may be continually rechallenged whilst grazing. In an unexposed three-montholdcalfe from a naturally infected mother, colostral antibody against B. ovata was not detected.
Streptococcal infections of pigs were found in 36 (24.8%) of 145 samples from diseased pigs byhistopathological and bacteriological examinations in Shimane Prefecture over a period from 1979to 1981. Serological groups Of 33 streptococcal strains, 20 (60.6%) belonged to Lancefield group R and12 (36.4%), to C but one was unidentified. The disease seemed to occur most commonly in litter piglets associated with weaning, moving andmixing. Morbidity ranged from 4.2 to 81.8% in infected herds. Principal diagnostic signs of group R infections were nervous symptoms with meningitis, pyrexiaand leucocytosis. Those of group C infections were hemorrhage in visceral organs and pyrexia.Group R strains were most frequently (94.1%) isolated from the brain and group C strains from mainvisceral organs at a similar rate. The former were highly sensitive to penicillin and the latter topractically all antibiotics, except macrolides.
In healthy Holstein cattle more than 10months old, the mean values of serum total tocopherolwere 318±163.5 and 484±135.5μg/100ml for the stable and pasture-feeding peridos, respectively.There was a significant difference between the two periods. Particularly, 6.8% 8 of 116 of the cattle examined in the stable-feeding period showed a level lower than 100μg/100ml. Theywere all less than 20months old. The rewas no seasonal significant fluctuation of serum total orα-tocopherol level in milking cattle, although in summer and fall the level was a little higher thanin any other season. Serum total tocopherol began to decrease immediately after paturition and showed a minimumlevel 3days later. Then, it returned gradually to the level before parturition. Calves were born with a minimum level of serum total tocopherol of 42 16.1μg/100ml. Afterthe consumption of colostrum, tocopherol increased temporarily for 3days and then tended to decrease.A low level of 76-96μg/100ml was continued over a perild of 4weeks to 4months of age.
Progesterone receptors in the uterus were examined in ten bitches with pyometra and five healthyadult bitches in the metestrous stage. These in the cytosol and nucleus of the endometrium withpyometra were 1.53±0.46 and 0.47±0.24p mol/g tissue, respectively. In the normal bitches, theywere 1.89±0.28 and 0.40±0.05p mol/g tissue, respectively. From these results, it may beshown that bitches with pyometra have not always higer affinity to progesterone in the uterusthan normal metestrous bitches.
Two Japanese Black bulls of the same herd 8 and 11 years old were affected with mesothelioma.They suffered from ascites, which contained many tumorous epithelioid cells. Necropsy revealed multiple nodules formed on the parietal and visceral peritoneum, and in theyounger bull also on the pleura. The tumors arose from the superficial layer of the serosa. Normalserosal cells were continuous with the tumor cells.
A 2-month-old female Japanese cat had a 2-3-day history of anorexia and weakness. It wasskinny, showing poor growth. Cardiacmurmurs were heard on the left chest wall. Congenitalheart disease was suspected from electrocardiograms, phonocardiograms and chest X-ray. Deathoccurred suddenly 4days afer the first examination. Autopsy revealed severe right and left auricular enlargement, hypoplasty and interruption ofthe aortic arch, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary-ductus-descending aorta trunk (PDDT), andventricular septal defect. This case was diagnosed as Celoria-A type of interruption of the aorticarch (IAA).