Eight normal puppies were inoculated with canine parvovirus (CPV). As a results, they were divided into two groups. Group I showed marked clinical signs, such as depression, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting. Group II showed only subclinical depression. Severe leukopenia accompanied with lyrnphopenia and neutropenia was observed in all the puppies of group I till 5 days postinoculation (DPI). The total nucleated cell count of the bone marrow began to decrease 1 DPI and reached a minimum 5 DPI. In it, myeloid and erythroid cells decreased, and immature cells were very few or eventually disappeared. In group II, the leukocyte count showed a mild decrease over a period from 5 to 7 DPI. HI antibody developed rapidly in both groups 5 DPI and its highest titer was reached 7 DPI. Necropsy revelaed atrophy of the thymus, enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes, and congestion, thickening, edema and necrosis of the mucosal membrane of the small intestine in 3 of 8 puppies examined. Depletion and necrosis of lymphocytes were observed in lymphatic tissues. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were recognized in the small intestine, lymphatic tissues and bone marrow.
On a dairy farm in the Tokachi district of Hokkaido bovine demodicosis was seen in 5.3%(2/38) of calves and 44. 6%(25/56) of cows 2-14 years old in July, 1982. Large numbers of nodules caused by Demodex bovis were observed on the body side, head, back, hip, legs and abdomen. Every stage of D. bovis was detected in materials squeezed from nodules, and most male adults were seen in the crust of nodules. A 5 v/v% dilution of 20% BPMC (2-sec-butylphenyl-methyl-carbamate) in liquid paraffin was applied to 2 heavily affected animals once a week for 5 weeks. As a result, nodules were reduced in number to 78.4 and 62.3% respectively, at 13 weeks of treatment.
Serum progesterone level (SPL) was measured in 52 cows by an enzyme immunoassay on the day of insemination and 7 days after insemination (a. i.). As a result, 47 cows (90.4%) were judged to be in estrus with ovulation, one cow (1.9%) was in estrus without ovulation, and 4 cows were not in estrus. Of the 47 cows, 36 were judged to be pregnant by rectal examination 60 days a. i. In them, SPL began to rise 7 days a. i. and remained to be rather high until 20-22 days a. i., ranging from 1.2 to 8.2 (5.3±1.7, mean±SD) ng/ml. In the other 16 non-pregnant cows, SPL decreased significantly (p<0.01) until 20-22 days a. i., ranging from 0.4 to 5.5 (1.3±1.2) ng/ml. A diagnosis of pregnancy was made in 40 cows by serum progesterone assay. The accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis by this assay was 90% for positive cases and 100% for negative cases.
Chickens infected with Leucocytozoon caulleryi were administered with sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) over a period from some time between 1 and 11 days to 21 days after infection (a. i.). Serum antigen (SA), antibody against SA, and antibody against gametocytes (G) were detected in groups in which medication was started 6 or 7 days a. i. Parasitemia and death were observed in groups in which medication was initiated 10 or 11 days a. i. When chickens were reinfected 30 days after first infection, SA was detected in groups medicated 1 or 2 days a. i. Parasitemia was observed in groups medicated some time between 1 and 4 days a. i. Clinical signs were observed in groups medicated 1 or 2 days a. i. and accompanied with no death. Antibodies against SA and G became positive or increased again in titer in all the groups 14 days after reinfection, except in groups medicated 1 or 2 days a. i. in which antibody against SA did not. These results suggest that the 2nd generation schizont may play an important role in causing a resistance to reinfection in chickens recovered from infection with L. caulleryi, and that the 1st and 2nd generation merozoite and gametocyte may have partly common antigen.
Thirty-eight strains of bovine rhinovirus (BRV) were isolated in primary cultures of calf kidney cells from nasal secretions of cattle with respiratory symptons in Hiroshima Prefecture over a period from 1975 to 1981. Of them, 32 strains were identified as BRV 1 type (BRV-1). The remaining six strains could be distinguished from the known serotypes 1 and 2 of BRV by the neutralization (NT) test. Most cattle clinically affected with respiratory disease showed a significant rise in NT antibody titer against type 1 or the new serotype of BRV. None or a few of them showed a serological evidence of recent infection with BRV-2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3, and bovine adenovirus type 7. The NT test on bovine sera revealed a wide dissemination of types 1 and 2 and the new serotype of BRV among cattle in Hiroshima Prefecture.
Fecal examination was performed in 1, 129 Holstein dairy cows on 49 farms in 10 areas in Hokkaido to detect helminths. Eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes were found in 927 cows (82.1%)(averaging 24.2 eggs/5g feces). Parasitic nematode in were feces fewer in cows 6-8 years old than in those of any other age group. There were large differences in the postive rate and average nematode egg count among areas, farms and cows. Lungworms were found in feces from 10 adult cows suggesting that their infection might be latent. Fasciola and Paramphistomum were present in a few cows. Tapeworms were recorded in 5% of all the cows.
Six foals with white muscle disease (WMD) presented a normal total tocopherol concentration (TTC) of serum, except one female which showed a concentration lower 100 μg/100 ml. In healthy foals 1 to 7 days of age TTC was the heighest in the adrenals, which were followed by the liver, lungs+heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, and spleen in the order listed. TTC's in the liver and adrenals were much lower in the affected foals than in the healthy foals 1 to 7 days of age. There was no difference in TTC in serum or erythrocytes after injection with vitamin E between the healthy and affected foals. TTC increased markedly in the liver, adrenals, and skeletal muscle in the healthy foals 2.5 to 3 days after injection with vitamin E. It increased slightly only in the liver in the affected foals even 6 days after the injection.