A total of 98 atropinized cats were injected with xylazine (2.0mg/kg) and ketamine (5.0mg, 7.5mg, or 10.0mg/kg). In the stage of surgical anesthesia 56 of them were given a combination of 4-aminopyridine (0.3mg/kg) and yohimbine (0.125mg/kg), and the other 42 1ml of saline solution as controls. All the cats with the antagonists showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in response time as compared with the controls. Of them, 45% were reversed dramatically. An increase in respiration rate and depth was evident in the 56 cats. No signs of anxiety, excitation, or convulsant tendencies were marked, except in 2 cats showing rigidity. No relapse to unconssciousnes occurred in the 56 cats. In conclusion, the combination of 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine was a safe and fast-acting specific antagonist to anesthesia induced with the combination of xylazine and ketamine in cats.
Seventy-seven pigs slaughtered were found to be affected with bacterial endocarditis over a period from January, 1983 to December, 1984. Strictly anaerobic organisms, including Fusobacterium necrophorum always, were recovered from heart lesions in 8 pigs. Facultative anaerobes were recovered concurrently from these pigs, except one. From this pig F. necrophorum, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Peptococcus indolicus were recovered. F. necrophorum was also recovered from liver, spleen and kidney of 4 pigs, from liver and kidney of 2 pigs, and liver and spleen of 1 pig. Thus these results suggested that Fusobacterium necrophorum caused endocarditis and septicaemia.
In a pasture 50 rearing Holstein calves were grazed in summer and spring over a period from June, 1983, to December, 1984. They were examined by a modification of the Wisconsin method and the method of flotation in the centrifugation tube. As a result, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Nematodirus sp., Ostertagia ostertagi, Strongyloides papillosus, and Trichuris discolor were detected from them. The infection of each species was mild. Some of the calves were administered with an anthelmintic. The incidence of Japanese Theileriasis and gain in body weight were compared between these calves and the other untreated ones. The parasitic infection exerted no significant influence upon the incidence, but the treatment seemed to have improved the gain in body weight.
Eight young cattle with neurologic signs were encountered at the Hamamatsu City Meat Center in these five years. In them, the cerebral cortex was affected with widespread lamellar necrosis, which involved the whole cortex in some cattle. The cytoplasm of neuronal cells was eosinophilic and shrunk with pyknotic nuclei. These changes were probably due to ischemia of the cerebral cortex. In the surrounding tissue, there were numerous phagocytic cells with foamy cytoplasm containing lipids to result in cystic areas. Necrosis of neuronal cells was present in the cerebral nuclei, thalamus, substantia nigra, corpora quadrigemina and vermis cerebelli, as well as in the cerebral cortex. These necrotic changes of neuronal cells, the age of affected animals ranging from 5 to 12 months, and the sporadic occurrence suggested that the eight cases might be diagnosed as “cerebrocortical necrosis of cattle” or “polioencephalomalacia of cattle”, although neither etiology nor pathogenesis was completely investigated.
Two breeding sows and one breeding boar died or rejected with nervous symptoms on two farms in Nagasaki Prefecture from May to August, 1984. Autopsy revealed that two of them were affected with thick turbidity of the ventral part of the medulla oblongata, and that one of them had abscess formed from cerebellum to pons. Purulent meningitis was seen in the ventral part of the medulla oblongata, and suppurative encephalitis. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from the lesion of each brain.
A total of 240 neoplasms in animals were studied at the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Miyazaki University, over a ten-year period from 1970 to 1979. They consisted of 142 from dogs, 29 from cats, 40 from cattle, 11 from birds, and 19 from other animals. Transmissible venereal tumors were the most frequent (44/142) in the dogs. Of 31 canine mammary tumors examined, 19 (61.3%) were benign mixed tumors. Mammary carcinoma was found in 75.0%(21/29) of the cats. It was indicated that tumors showed almost the same tendency in occurrence in the southern part of Kyushu as in the urban area of Tokyo or in other countries, except that a relatively high incidence of canine transmissible venereal tumors and feline mammary carcinoma was noticed in that part.
A cow 5 years old was affected with mastocytoma. It had cutaneous nodular lesions in various regions. Parts of superficial ulceration were bled, and the time to hemostasis prolonged. A small nodular lesion was found in the subserosa of the abomasum. Proliferation of mast cells was seen in the pancreas and lymph nodes on the surface of the body. Histamine was present in great quantities in the nodular lesions. It increased slightly in abomasum and sapramammary lymph node but was normal in level in the plasma. No extension of plasma prothrombin time was observed.
A disease broke out in piglets 30-40 days old on a hog farm rearing about 3, 000 swine after those piglets recovered from weanling diarrhea. Its symptoms were circling, spasm, ataxia and torticollis. Most of the affected piglets died within 1-2 days. At autopsy, no significant gross lesions were recorded. Eosinophilic perivascular droplets, demyelination and malacia were seen in the central nervous system. The disease was diagnosed as cerebrospinal angiopathy. Non-hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from the brain.