An experiment was undertaken with dogs with experimental cholestasis to estimate the role of the liver in digitoxin metabolism and excretion. Fifteen dogs were divided into 3 groups: a control (C) group of sham-operated dogs, a common bile duct ligation (L) group, and a phenobarbital pretreatment (P) group given phenobarbital for 2 weeks follwed by ligation of the common bile duct. Digitoxin was given as a single intravenous administration. Plasma digitoxin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the C group, the mean biological half-life of plasma digitoxin (T1/2β) was 7.5 hours. The distribution volume, estimated by extrapolation, was 0.8l/kg. Calculated by the area under the plasma concentration curve, the volume was 0.9l/kg. The L group maintained a significantly higher plasma digitoxin concentration and had a significantly longer T1/2β than any other group. Phenobarbital pretreatment increased the activity of hepatic microsomal enzymes, decreased the plasma concentration and shortened T1/2β. There were no significant differences in these parameters between the C and P groups. An experiment using 3H-digitoxin indicated that the excretion of total radioactivity in urine and bile was 20 and 7%, respectively, of the dose administered in a 24-hour period. The greatest part of the radioactivity was a CH2Cl2-insoluble fraction. In the P group, the urinary excretion of the CH2Cl2-insoluble fraction was greater than in any other group. It was suggested that digoxin may be preferred to digitoxin for optimum digitalis therapy in dogs with cholestasis or some other hepatic disorder.
Four cows clinically affected with leukosis, 6 cows positive for antibody against leukosis virus, and 5 normal cows were examined for diagnostic utility of sialic acid (SA) and glycoprotein (GP) in bloods The serum concentration of SA was 55.6±5.0mg/dl in the nomal cows, 50.0±7.2 mg/dl in the antibody-positive cows and 71.4±14.2mg/dl in the leukotic cows. In the leukotic cows, the serum levels of SA and GP a-globulin were higher, β-and γ-globulin lower than in the other cows. The serum concentration of toatl GP as hexose did not much differ among the three groups. Changes in SA and GP were observed in one leukotic cow for 2 years. After the clinical manifesration, SA and GP a-globulin increased and GP β-and γ-globulin decreased. As an indicator for the diagnosis of bovine leukosis, the assay of both substances seemed to be useful.
A milk progesterone (P) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit (Ovucheck, Cambridge Life Science Ltd., U. K.) was applied for the early pregnancy diagnosis in cows. The lowest measurable level of P in milk for the EIA kit was 2.0 ng/ml. Inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) of P levels from three different pooled milk samples were 7.31-8.20%, and intra-assay CVs 4.87-10.90%. Milk progesterone levels determined by the EIA kit correlated significantly with the values obtained by a double antibody EIA (p<0.05). The accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis made 22-24 days after artificial insemination (AI) by the EIA kit was 84%(37/44) for positive cases and 100%(15/15) for negative ones, as compared with that by rectal palpation made 40 days after AI or later. In conclusion, the EIA kit was highly reliable and practical for milk P determination and useful for early pregnancy diagnosis.
It was previously reported that every mature female heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, always passed degenerative eggs, together with microfilariae, and that the rate of eggs seemed to increase with the age of mother worms. clarify A colorimeter was developed to support these results. It made of hematin hydrochloride solution at different concentrations. Heartworms 1 to3 years of age were surely discriminated by colorimetry, but those more than 4 years old were not.
When porcine blood was examined in the blood processing plant, its bacterial counts were as follows: total bacteria, 2.8×104/ml; psychrotrophic bacteria, 1.5×104/ml; coliform bacteria, 4.2/ml; pathogenic Staphylococci, 4.6/ml; thermoduric bacteria, 1.9/ml; on the average, Clostridium perfringens or salmonellae were not demonstrated. These counts were constant or decreased during storage at 4°C for 48 hours. Porcine plasma, as an end product, showed the follwing counts: total bacteria, 1.9×104/ml; psychrotrophic bacteria, 1.1×103/ml; coliform bacteria, 3.2/ml; pathogenic Staphylococci, 2.1/ml, thermoduric bacteria, 1.1/ml; on the average. C. perfringens was not detected. Salmonellae were isolated from one of 48 plasma specimens. Antibiotics or chemotherapeutics were not demonstrated. Bacterial contamination was more remarkable in summer than in any other season. In procine plasma the count decreased gradually during storage at-20°C.
In the Shinobazu Pond of Ueno Park in Tokyo, death occurred to almost one half of the aquatic fowls inhabiting in June, 1984, and to more than 60 migratory wild ducks in fall and winter up to March, 1985. Dead birds were found to have manifested motorial paralysis characteristic of botulism as a main symptom. Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin was demonstrated in the blood of 7 ducks and wild ducks which died in June. C. botulinum type C was isolated from the contents of the gizzard in two of the seven. The toxin was also demonstrated in the blood of 23 wild ducks which died in November, December, and January, and this organism isolated from the contents of the gizzard and cecum of 7 and 14 waterfowls, respectively. Botulinum toxin type C1 was also recognized in mud almost all over the pond in July and February.
Four Holstein cows were examined at primisecundis, and tertiparity. In the early lactation stage up to 10 weeks after calving, an increase in hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), albumin (Alb), and blood urine nitrogen (BUN) was associated with an increase in CP and TDN intake. At the time of low levels of CP and TDN inake, free fatty acid (FFA) inceaseed. It was suggested that Ht, Hb, Alb, BUN and FFA in the blood might be significant items for estimation of the feeding level of a cow in the early lactation stage.
Intestinal anthrax was diagnosed in 2 pigs slaughtered. Local hemorrhage with pseudomembrane formation was found in the jejunum of the 2 pigs. Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged. Carbuncles were observed on the surface of the spleen and reddish spots presented in the liver in pig No.1. Histologically, hemorrhagic-diphtheritic lesions were seen in the intestine of the two pigs. The intestinal wall was very thick in pig No.1. Hemorrhagic, fibrinous, necrotic, and inflammatory changes and the presence of bacilli were observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes and carbuncles of the spleen of pig No.1. In the liver focal necrosis and hemorrhage were noticed. Electron microscopically, two types of bacilli which had a capsule or spore were seen in the intestine of pig No.1. One was considered to be Bacillus anthracis, and the other Clostridium sp. Neither type was phagocytized by neutrophils or macrophages.